Tandem Mass
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2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Zhizhen Song ◽  
Zeyun Li ◽  
Xueqian Wen ◽  
Ruijuan Liu ◽  
Xin Tian

Abstract Background Epimedin C, one of the main active ingredients of Epimedium, has been reported to have potential hepatotoxicity. However, the mechanism of Epimedin C-induced liver injury has not been studied. mRNA methylation, mainly including N6-methyladenosine and N5-methylcytidine, is implicated in the regulation of many biological processes and diseases. The study of quantifying mRNA methylation alterations in Epimedin C-induced liver injury mice may contribute to clarify the mechanism of its hepatotoxicity. Therefore, an analysis method needs to be established to determine nucleoside and methyl-nucleoside levels in liver mRNA. Methods An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated to simultaneously determine six nucleosides (adenosine, uridine, cytidine, guanosine, N6-methyladenosine and N5-methylcytidine) in liver mRNA. Besides, the Epimedin C-induced liver injury mouse model was studied by intragastrical administration Epimedin C at a daily dose of 10 or 40 mg/kg for 4 weeks. The nucleoside samples of the mice liver mRNA were prepared and separated on an UPLC column using 0.1% formic acid water and methanol after enzymatic digestion. Then the sample was detected by a Qtrap 6500 mass spectrometer. Results In this method, calibration curves of the six nucleosides showed good linearity over their concentration ranges. The linear ranges were 40–20,000 pg/mL for adenosine, cytidine, N6-methyladenosine and N5-methylcytidine, 0.2–100 ng/mL for guanosine, and 2–1000 ng/mL for uridine. Epimedin C-induced liver injury mouse model was successfully established,which could be proved by the elevation of serum aminotransferase levels, and the increased inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vacuolar degeneration in liver. The N6-methyladenosine and N5-methylcytidine levels, and the ratios of N6-methyladenosine to adenosine and N5-methylcytidine to cytidine of the mice liver mRNA were all significantly increased after Epimedin C treatment. Conclusion The established method was successfully applied to the determination of six nucleosides levels in liver mRNA of the Epimedin C-induced liver injury mice model and the control group. The results indicated that mRNA methylation might be associated with Epimedin C-induced liver injury. This study will facilitate the mechanism research on the hepatotoxicity of Epimedin C.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Tao Li ◽  
Zhaowei Zhang ◽  
Yu Wang ◽  
Ying Li ◽  
Jiang Zhu ◽  

The molecular mechanisms underlying aflatoxin production have been well-studied in strains of the fungus Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus) under artificial conditions. However, aflatoxin biosynthesis has rarely been studied in A. flavus strains isolated from field conditions with different aflatoxin-producing ability. In the present study, tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with tandem-mass spectrometry analysis were used for proteomic quantification in natural isolates of high- and low-aflatoxin-yield A. flavus strains. Additionally, findings obtained using the TMT-labeling method were validated using the high-resolution multiple reaction monitoring (MRM-HR) method. In total, 4,363 proteins were quantified, among which 1,045 proteins were differentially expressed between the high- and low-aflatoxin-yield A. flavus strains. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the up-regulated proteins were significantly enriched in carbon-related metabolism and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, whereas the down-regulated proteins were enriched in oxidative phosphorylation. Moreover, GST proteins were found to be significantly down-regulated in high-yield A. flavus strains; this result contradicted previous findings obtained from A. flavus strains grown under artificial conditions. In summary, our study provides novel insights into aflatoxin regulation in A. flavus under field conditions and could facilitate the development of various strategies for the effective control of aflatoxin contamination in food crops.

2021 ◽  
Vol 102 (9) ◽  
Kiran Bala Sharma ◽  
Simran Chhabra ◽  
Suruchi Aggarwal ◽  
Aarti Tripathi ◽  
Arup Banerjee ◽  

Advances in proteomics have enabled a comprehensive understanding of host–pathogen interactions. Here we have characterized Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection-driven changes in the mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) proteome. Through tandem mass tagging (TMT)-based mass spectrometry, we describe changes in 7.85 % of the identified proteome due to JEV infection. Pathway enrichment analysis showed that proteins involved in innate immune sensing, interferon responses and inflammation were the major upregulated group, along with the immunoproteasome and poly ADP-ribosylation proteins. Functional validation of several upregulated anti-viral innate immune proteins, including an active cGAS–STING axis, was performed. Through siRNA depletion, we describe a crucial role of the DNA sensor cGAS in restricting JEV replication. Further, many interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) were observed to be induced in infected cells. We also observed activation of TLR2 and inhibition of TLR2 signalling using TLR1/2 inhibitor CU-CPT22-blocked production of inflammatory cytokines IL6 and TNF-α from virus-infected N9 microglial cells. The major proteins that were downregulated by infection were involved in cell adhesion (collagens), transport (solute carrier and ATP-binding cassette transporters), sterol and lipid biosynthesis. Several collagens were found to be transcriptionally downregulated in infected MEFs and mouse brain. Collectively, our data provide a bird’s-eye view into how fibroblast protein composition is rewired following JEV infection.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Junqi Feng ◽  
Chenxi Yang ◽  
Ling Zhu ◽  
Yuchen Zhang ◽  
Xiaoxu Zhao ◽  

Abstract Background Isobutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (IBDD) is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder resulting from variants in ACAD8, and is poorly understood, as only dozens of cases have been reported previously. Based on a newborn screening program, we evaluated the incidence, phenotype and genotype of IBDD as well as the prognosis. Moreover, we reviewed the variant spectrum in ACAD8 associated with IBDD. Methods Forty unrelated patients with IBDD were retrospectively screened for newborns between Jan 2012 and Dec 2020. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used to determine the concentrations of C4-acylcarnitine, C4/C2 (acetylcarnitine), and C4/C3 (propionylcarnitine). All suspected cases were genetically tested by metabolic genes panel. Results The incidence of IBDD here was 1: 62,599. All patients presented continuously elevated C4-acylcarnitine levels with higher ratios of C4/C2 and C4/C3. Isobutyrylglycine occurred in only 8 patients. During follow-up, four patients had a transient motor delay, and two patients had growth delay. Notably, one case harbored both ACAD8 compound heterozygous variants and a KMT2A de novo variant (c.2739del, p.E914Rfs*35), with IBDD and Wiedemann–Steiner syndrome together, had exact severe global developmental delay. All patients were regularly monitored once they were diagnosed, and each patient gradually had a normal diet after 6 months of age. After 3–108 months of follow-up, most individuals were healthy except the case harboring the KMT2A variant. A total of 16 novel variants in ACAD8, c.4_5delCT, c.109C > T, c.110–2A > T, c.236G > A, c.259G > A, c.381–14G > A, c.413delA, c.473A > G, c.500delG, c.758 T > G, c.842–1G > A, c.911A > T, c.989G > A, c.1150G > C, c.1157A > G and c.1165C > T, were identified. Along with a literature review on 51 ACAD8 variants in 81 IBDD patients, we found that the most common variant was c.286G > A (27.2%), which has been observed solely in the Chinese population to date, followed by c.1000C > T (8.6%), c.1176G > T (3.7%) and c.455 T > C (3.1%). Conclusion The concentration of C4-acylcarnitine in NBS plus subsequent genetic testing is necessary for IBDD diagnosis. Both the genotypes and ACAD8 variants in IBDD are highly heterogeneous, and no significant correlations between genotype and phenotype are present here in patients with IBDD. Our IBDD cohort with detaied clinical characteristics, genotypes and long-term prognosis will be helpful for the diagnosis and management of patients with IBDD in the future.

Geology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Darwinaji Subarkah ◽  
Morgan L. Blades ◽  
Alan S. Collins ◽  
Juraj Farkaš ◽  
Sarah Gilbert ◽  

Authigenic components in marine sediments are important archives for past environment reconstructions. However, defining reliable age constraints and assessing the effects of post-depositional overprints in Precambrian sequences are challenging. We demonstrate a new laser-based analytical approach that has the potential to rapidly and accurately evaluate the depositional and alteration histories of Proterozoic shales. Our study employs a novel application of in situ Rb-Sr dating coupled with simultaneous trace-element analysis using reaction-cell laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–tandem mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS/MS). We present results from shales sourced from two wells in the Proterozoic McArthur Basin, northern Australia. These rocks have been widely used by previous studies as a key section for ancient biogeochemical and paleo-redox reconstructions. Shales from well UR5 yielded initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios, Rb-Sr ages, and rare earth element plus yttrium (REEY) patterns similar to those of a dolerite sampled from the same core. We propose that the UR5 samples chronicle hydrothermal alteration instigated by the dolerite intrusion. In contrast, a correlative shale from well UR6 yielded an age consistent with the expected depositional age (1577 ± 56 Ma) with REEY and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios similar to ca. 1.5 Ga seawater. We suggest that this sample records the minimum depositional age and early marine diagenetic history for this unit. This new technique can date Proterozoic shales quickly, cheaply, and with minimum sample preparation. Importantly, ages are triaged to differentiate between those recording primary marine versus secondary processes. This novel approach provides a potentially powerful tool for dating and fingerprinting the vast array of ancient marine shales for further studies of Earth systems through deep time.

2021 ◽  
pp. 140349482110439
Hallvard Gjerde ◽  
Anne Line Bretteville-Jensen ◽  
Lihn Bache-Andreassen ◽  
Kristin Hanoa ◽  
Håvard Furuhaugen ◽  

Background People who inject drugs (PWID) have a high risk of premature death due to fatal overdoses. Newly emerged fentanyls, much more potent than heroin and other opioids, may increase this risk further. Therefore, precise information on injected drugs is critical to improving prevention strategies. Aims This study aimed to analyse drug residues in used injection equipment in order to determine drug and drug combinations and compare and complement findings with self-reported information. Methods Used syringes and needles ( n=766) were collected at the supervised drug consumption facilities, the needle exchange service and two low-threshold health services for problem drug users in Oslo, Norway. The material was collected every third month from June 2019 to June 2020 and analysed for 64 substances using highly specific analytical methods (ultra–high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry). Additionally, a street-recruited sample of PWID was interviewed from 2017 to 2019 regarding their drug injection habits ( n=572). Results Heroin (65.5%) or amphetamines (59.8%), often in combination (30.5%), were commonly detected in drug residues. Other opioids, stimulants or benzodiazepines were rarely detected (6.1%). Fentanyl was detected in only one syringe. Heroin was the most reported drug (77.6% during the past four weeks, 48.3% daily/almost daily), followed by amphetamines (57.5% during the past four weeks, 23.1% daily or almost daily). Injection of methadone, buprenorphine and dissolved tablets was self-reported more frequently than determined in drug residue findings. Conclusions Analysis of the injection equipment proved useful as a non-invasive, rapid and accurate means to obtain detailed information on injected drugs in Oslo and supplement traditional PWID survey information.

2021 ◽  
Manxi Yang ◽  
Hang Hu ◽  
Pei Su ◽  
Paul M. Thomas ◽  
Jeannie M. Camarillo ◽  

Unraveling the complexity of biological systems relies on the development of new approaches for spatially resolved proteoform-specific analysis of the proteome. Top-down proteomics is a powerful tool, which has been used for the identification of thousands of proteoforms in biological samples. Herein, we present a first spatially resolved top-down proteomics analysis of biological tissues using nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (nano-DESI MSI). Nano-DESI generates multiply charged protein ions, which is advantageous for their structural characterization using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Proof-of-concept experiments demonstrate that the nano-DESI MSI combined with on-tissue top-down proteomics is ideally suited for the proteoform-selective imaging of thin tissue sections. Using rat brain tissue as a model system, we provide the first evidence of the differential proteoform expression in different regions of the brain.

Biomedicines ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (9) ◽  
pp. 1250
Lei Peng ◽  
Prasannavenkatesh Durai ◽  
Keunwan Park ◽  
Jeong Joo Pyo ◽  
Yongsoo Choi

Natural products (NPs) have played a significant role in drug discovery for diverse diseases, and numerous attempts have been made to discover promising NP inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), a major therapeutic target in autoimmune diseases. However, NP inhibitors of TNF-α, which have the potential to be developed as new drugs, have not been reported for over a decade. To facilitate the search for new promising inhibitors of TNF-α, we developed an efficient competitive binding screening assay based on analytical size exclusion chromatography coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Application of this screening method to the NP library led to the discovery of a potent inhibitor of TNF-α, sennoside B, with an IC50 value of 0.32 µM in TNF-α induced HeLa cell toxicity assays. Surprisingly, the potency of sennoside B was 5.7-fold higher than that of the synthetic TNF-α inhibitor SPD304. Molecular docking was performed to determine the binding mode of sennoside B to TNF-α. In conclusion, we successfully developed a novel competition binding screening method to discover small molecule TNF-α inhibitors and identified the natural compound sennoside B as having exceptional potency.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (18) ◽  
pp. 5634
Natasa P. Kalogiouri ◽  
Evangelia Kritikou ◽  
Ioannis C. Martakos ◽  
Constantina Lazarou ◽  
Michalis Pentogennis ◽  

Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is recognized for its nutritional virtues and the beneficial health effects deriving from its hydrophilic fraction (phenolic acids, phenolic alcohols, flavonoids, and secoiridoids). The phenolic compounds of EVOOs possess multiple biological properties such as antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticarcinogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, among others. Considering that EVOOs produced in Greece are recognized as high-quality products due to their rich phenolic content, it is imperative to characterize Greek monovarietal EVOOs and ensure that their uniqueness is closely linked to their botanical and territorial origin. In this work, an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF-MS) analytical method combined with target and suspect screening was used to characterize monovarietal EVOOs of the Kolovi variety from Lesvos, and thereby establish their phenolic fingerprint. Overall, 25 phenols were determined, and the total quantification and semi-quantification results ranged between 251 and 1230 mg/kg, highlighting the high phenolic content of the Kolovi variety from the island of Lesvos in the North Aegean.

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