This paper provides a brief historical overview on the genesis of a Virgilian locus criticus (Ecl., 4, 62), comments on some aspects of its philological discussion from Antiquity to the 21st century, and contributes some elements concerning the reading offered by the codices vetustissimi of the direct tradition.
В статье рассматривается адаптация методики реинжиниринга унаследованных систем. Приводится обзор подходов к реинжинирингу. Несмотря на то, что термин «реинжиниринг» в первую очередь относится к изменению бизнес процессов, он удачно подходит и к модернизации программного обеспечения. Обосновывается необходимость адаптации методики. В статье описывается применение адаптированной методики на примере реинжиниринга программного комплекса для прогнозных исследований ТЭК. Приведен исторический обзор версий ПК «ИНТЭК» и описаны поэтапно все шаги проведения его реинжиниринга на основе агентно-сервисного подхода
The article presents an adaptation of the legacy systems reengineering technique. An overview of approaches to reengineering is given. Although the term “reengineering” primarily refers to changing business processes, it is well suited to software development. The necessity of adapting the method has been substantiated. The article describes the application of the described methodology on the example of software complex reengineering for predictive research of the fuel and energy complex. A historical overview of the current problem is given and all stages of INTEC PC reengineering are described step by step
AbstractThe macroalgal flora of Cantabria (north of Spain) has attracted the interest of many researchers on past occasions. Currently published information only reflects occasional collections from sporadic field visits to this region of the Spanish Atlantic coast. To overcome this, a historical overview of research and publications, encompassing collections and presence data recording, has been undertaken. This work lists the resultant taxonomic records and provides information about macroalgal flora of Cantabria. A total of 425 species (25 Cyanobacteria, 55 Chlorophyta, 81 Ochrophyta, and 264 Rhodophyta) were identified. The number of specific, infraspecific taxa, and stages is 437: 25 Cyanobacteria, 57 Chlorophyta, 89 Ochrophyta, and 266 Rhodophyta. The floristic character of flora from the Cantabrian coast is compared over time and with nearby regions applying Cheney’s ratio [(Rhodophyta+Chlorophyta)/ Ochrophyta, or (R+C)/O]. The present paper aims to provide an overview of the research that has been conducted in the Cantabrian coast, not only found in international publications but also in local publications as well as unpublished theses.
Understanding the laws governing education and key education-related litigation is essential for teachers to interpret and apply. Once teachers have this legal framework of knowledge, they can effectively advocate for their students, schools, and themselves. This chapter will supply a historical overview of the laws relevant to education, key court cases, and the steps needed to become advocates while applying this knowledge. In addition, case studies embedded within the chapter will provide a snapshot of how the law and the outcome of critical litigation play out in real classroom scenarios.
This chapter presents a historical overview of the emergence and evolution of ESG assets and, in particular, analyses the main market trends that have been observed in recent years in relation to these assets. The authors intend to present a summary of the main moments and phases that these assets have gone through, from the moment of their appearance in 2007, the year in which the European Investment Bank carried out its Climate Awareness Bond as a test issuance. The movement associated with the issue of these assets is initiated by supranational entities with little homogeneity and no fixed conventions. To overcome this impasse, the green bond principles emerged and a process of defining the characteristics of these assets began, with a particular focus on transparency and the governance process. From this stage onwards, the market showed interest in these financial products and hence the emergence of a harmonising movement regarding green bond standards in which Europe seems to have taken a leading role.