The article is dedicated to the conceptual and specific analysis of the emergence of the culture of legal techniques under the conditions of a new technological form. The identification and analysis of key types of culture of legal techniques, allows to show their specificity following typological groups. Its systemic unity, which has its specificities, can be considered as the second dominant of the culture of legal techniques. The article further offers a primary doctrinal definition of the concept of culture of legal techniques based on the identified dominant characteristics and manifestations of the culture of legal techniques, studied in the context of the search for ways of effective functioning of the system of power and powerless principles in the Russian legal system. This phenomenon is in the formation stage. The authors have used dialectical, historical-political, formal-legal, and comparative-legal methods. It is concluded that a promising systematic understanding of the essence and meaning of the culture of legal techniques will help to improve the legal culture as a whole and thus increase the effectiveness of the law in modern society.
Legal judgment elements extraction (LJEE) aims to identify the different judgment features from the fact description in legal documents automatically, which helps to improve the accuracy and interpretability of the judgment results. In real court rulings, judges usually need to scan both the fact descriptions and the law articles repeatedly to find out the relevant information, and it is hard to acquire the key judgment features quickly, so legal judgment elements extraction is a crucial and challenging task for legal judgment prediction. However, most existing methods follow the text classification framework, which fails to model the attentive relations of the law articles and the legal judgment elements. To address this issue, we simulate the working process of human judges, and propose a legal judgment elements extraction method with a law article-aware mechanism, which captures the complex semantic correlations of the law article and the legal judgment elements. Experimental results show that our proposed method achieves significant improvements than other state-of-the-art baselines on the element recognition task dataset. Compared with the BERT-CNN model, the proposed “All labels Law Articles Embedding Model (ALEM)” improves the accuracy, recall, and F1 value by 0.5, 1.4 and 1.0, respectively.
This article argues that the origins of the one-child policy beginning in 1980 in China, and its development into the current system of “comprehensive population management,” are to be found not in any unfolding of a statist or authoritarian logic, or within the parameters of a nominally “socialist” project, but rather in a return to a properly capitalist set of concerns and governmental techniques, the first iteration of which can be traced to the 1920s and 1930s. With regard to the broad set of economic reforms launched in the period 1979–81, it is argued that the one-child policy is absolutely continuous with other reforms across economic sectors (agricultural responsibility systems and urban enterprise reforms) and discontinuous with anything we might understand as population management in the period 1949–76. The “law of value debate” in 1979, which “resolved” a long-standing set of issues concerning national accounting, planning, and accumulation, is found to be—despite its apparently Marxist character, derivation, and vocabulary—the passage through which a capitalist developmental logic was reintroduced into Chinese governing, with significant consequences.