Termination analysis of linear loops plays a key rôle in several areas of computer science, including program verification and abstract interpretation. Already for the simplest variants of linear loops the question of termination relates to deep open problems in number theory, such as the decidability of the Skolem and Positivity Problems for linear recurrence sequences, or equivalently reachability questions for discrete-time linear dynamical systems. In this article, we introduce the class of
, which is broader than any previously considered, and study the decidability of the existence and algorithmic synthesis of such invariants as certificates of non-termination for linear loops equipped with a large class of halting conditions. We establish two main decidability results, one of them conditional on Schanuel’s conjecture is transcendental number theory.