recurrence sequences
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2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-20
Shaull Almagor ◽  
Dmitry Chistikov ◽  
Joël Ouaknine ◽  
James Worrell

Termination analysis of linear loops plays a key rôle in several areas of computer science, including program verification and abstract interpretation. Already for the simplest variants of linear loops the question of termination relates to deep open problems in number theory, such as the decidability of the Skolem and Positivity Problems for linear recurrence sequences, or equivalently reachability questions for discrete-time linear dynamical systems. In this article, we introduce the class of o-minimal invariants , which is broader than any previously considered, and study the decidability of the existence and algorithmic synthesis of such invariants as certificates of non-termination for linear loops equipped with a large class of halting conditions. We establish two main decidability results, one of them conditional on Schanuel’s conjecture is transcendental number theory.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-42
Gilles Barthe ◽  
Charlie Jacomme ◽  
Steve Kremer

We study decidability problems for equivalence of probabilistic programs for a core probabilistic programming language over finite fields of fixed characteristic. The programming language supports uniform sampling, addition, multiplication, and conditionals and thus is sufficiently expressive to encode Boolean and arithmetic circuits. We consider two variants of equivalence: The first one considers an interpretation over the finite field F q , while the second one, which we call universal equivalence, verifies equivalence over all extensions F q k of F q . The universal variant typically arises in provable cryptography when one wishes to prove equivalence for any length of bitstrings, i.e., elements of F 2 k for any k . While the first problem is obviously decidable, we establish its exact complexity, which lies in the counting hierarchy. To show decidability and a doubly exponential upper bound of the universal variant, we rely on results from algorithmic number theory and the possibility to compare local zeta functions associated to given polynomials. We then devise a general way to draw links between the universal probabilistic problems and widely studied problems on linear recurrence sequences. Finally, we study several variants of the equivalence problem, including a problem we call majority, motivated by differential privacy. We also define and provide some insights about program indistinguishability, proving that it is decidable for programs always returning 0 or 1.

Elisa Bellah

Finding integer solutions to norm form equations is a classical Diophantine problem. Using the units of the associated coefficient ring, we can produce sequences of solutions to these equations. It is known that these solutions can be written as tuples of linear recurrence sequences. We show that for certain families of norm forms defined over quartic fields, there exist integrally equivalent forms making any one fixed coordinate sequence a linear divisibility sequence.

Yüksel Soykan

In this paper, closed forms of the sum formulas ∑n k =0 xkWk and ∑n k=1 xkW-k for generalized Hexanacci numbers are presented. As special cases, we give summation formulas of Hexanacci, Hexanacci-Lucas, and other sixth-order recurrence sequences.

Japhet Odjoumani ◽  
Volker Ziegler

AbstractIn this paper we consider the Diophantine equation $$U_n=p^x$$ U n = p x where $$U_n$$ U n is a linear recurrence sequence, p is a prime number, and x is a positive integer. Under some technical hypotheses on $$U_n$$ U n , we show that, for any p outside of an effectively computable finite set of prime numbers, there exists at most one solution (n, x) to that Diophantine equation. We compute this exceptional set for the Tribonacci sequence and for the Lucas sequence plus one.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (2) ◽  
Robert Tichy ◽  
Ingrid Vukusic ◽  
Daodao Yang ◽  
Volker Ziegler

AbstractLet $$\{U_n\}_{n \ge 0}$$ { U n } n ≥ 0 and $$\{V_m\}_{m \ge 0}$$ { V m } m ≥ 0 be two linear recurrence sequences. We establish an asymptotic formula for the number of integers c in the range $$[-x, x]$$ [ - x , x ] which can be represented as differences $$ U_n - V_m$$ U n - V m . In particular, the density of such integers is 0.

Y¨ uksel Soykan

In this paper, closed forms of the sum formulas \(\sum_{k=0}^{n}kW_{k}\) and \(\sum_{k=1}^{n}kW_{-k}\) for generalized Tetranacci numbers are presented. As special cases, we give summation formulas of Tetranacci, Tetranacci-Lucas, and other fourth-order recurrence sequences.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
pp. 65-72
Albert Adu-Sackey ◽  
Francis T. Oduro ◽  
Gabriel Obed Fosu ◽  

The paper proves convergence for three uniquely defined recursive sequences, namely, arithmetico-geometric sequence, the Newton-Raphson recursive sequence, and the nested/composite recursive sequence. The three main hurdles for this prove processes are boundedness, monotonicity, and convergence. Oftentimes, these processes lie in the predominant use of prove by mathematical induction and also require some bit of creativity and inspiration drawn from the convergence monotone theorem. However, these techniques are not adopted here, rather, as a novelty, extensive use of basic manipulation of inequalities and useful equations are applied in illustrating convergence for these sequences. Moreover, we established a mathematical expression for the limit of the nested recurrence sequence in terms of its leading term which yields favorable results.

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