risk averse
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2022 ◽  
Vol 309 ◽  
pp. 118467
Yi Guo ◽  
Bo Ming ◽  
Qiang Huang ◽  
Yimin Wang ◽  
Xudong Zheng ◽  

Economies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 20
Simone Russo ◽  
Francesco Caracciolo ◽  
Cristina Salvioni

This article aims to evaluate the effect of insurance on production, technical efficiency, and input use of Italian specialised-quality grape growers. A panel instrumental variable stochastic frontier approach is applied over the years 2008–2017 using data from the Farm Accountancy Data Network. The results show the requirement to correct for the endogeneity that stems from insurance adoption. Insurance has an enhancing effect on production and efficiency and reduces the use of intermediate inputs. It suggests that insurance helps to diminish the risk-averse farmers’ suboptimal input use due to the presence of uncertainty. Crop insurance leads risk-averse farmers to behave as if they were risk neutral and employs the profit-maximising input vector. Therefore, by reducing the risks linked to the uncertainty of outcomes, crop insurance leads grape growers to go in the direction of profit maximisation.

Dieudonné Dieudo Ecike Ewanga

This paper presents the behavior of decision makers, the possible choices and the strategies 1 resulting from the uncertainties related to the integration of renewable energies. Its uncertainties 2 are the risks associated with the volatility of renewable sources, the dynamics of energy production 3 as well as the planning and operation of the electricity grid. The goal is to model the risk-averse 4 decision-maker’s behavior and the choice of integrating renewable energies into the electrical system. 5 Following a bibliographic approach, we expose a methodology to model the decision-maker’s 6 behavior(risk aversion and predilection for risk) to risk taking. The risk-averse decision maker may 7 adopt nonlinear utility functions. Risk aversion is a behavior that reflects the desire to avoid risk 8 decisions and thus reduces the risk of adverse consequences. A decision support tool is provided to 9 the decision-maker to choose a best-fit strategy based on his preferences. The rational and risk-averse 10 decision-maker would seek to maximize a concave utility function instead of seeking to minimize its 11 cost. Taste or aversion to risk can be modeled by a thematic function of utility.

Qiangang Jia ◽  
Sijie Chen ◽  
Yiyan Li ◽  
Zheng Yan

2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 384
Dengzhuo Liu ◽  
Zhongkai Li ◽  
Chao He ◽  
Shuai Wang

Due to global pandemics, political unrest and natural disasters, the stability of the supply chain is facing the challenge of more uncertain events. Although many scholars have conducted research on improving the resilience of the supply chain, the research on integrating product family configuration and supplier selection (PCSS) under disruption risks is limited. In this paper, the centralized supply chain network, which contains only one major manufacturer and several suppliers, is considered, and one resilience strategy (i.e., the fortified supplier) is used to enhance the resilience level of the selected supply base. Then, an improved stochastic bi-objective mixed integer programming model is proposed to support co-decision for PCSS under disruption risks. Furthermore, considering the above risk-neutral model as a benchmark, a risk-averse mixed integer program with Conditional Value-at-Risk (CVaR) is formulated to achieve maximum potential worst-case profit and minimum expected total greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions. Then, NSGA-II is applied to solve the proposed stochastic bi-objective mixed integer programming model. Taking the electronic dictionary as a case study, the risk-neutral solutions and risk-averse solutions that optimize, respectively, average and worst-case objectives of co-decision are also compared under two different ranges of disruption probability. The sensitivity analysis on the confidence level indicates that fortifying suppliers and controlling market share in co-decision for PCSS can effectively reduce the risk of low-profit/high-cost while minimizing the expected GHG emissions. Meanwhile, the effects of low-probability risk are more likely to be ignored in the risk-neutral solution, and it is necessary to adopt a risk-averse solution to reduce potential worst-case losses.

2021 ◽  
Florian Wechsung ◽  
Andrew Giuliani ◽  
M. Landreman ◽  
Antoine J Cerfon ◽  
Georg Stadler

Abstract We extend the single-stage stellarator coil design approach for quasi-symmetry on axis from [Giuliani et al, 2020] to additionally take into account coil manufacturing errors. By modeling coil errors independently from the coil discretization, we have the flexibility to consider realistic forms of coil errors. The corresponding stochastic optimization problems are formulated using a risk-neutral approach and risk-averse approaches. We present an efficient, gradient-based descent algorithm which relies on analytical derivatives to solve these problems. In a comprehensive numerical study, we compare the coil designs resulting from deterministic and risk-neutral stochastic optimization and find that the risk-neutral formulation results in more robust configurations and reduces the number of local minima of the optimization problem. We also compare deterministic and risk-neutral approaches in terms of quasi-symmetry on and away from the magnetic axis, and in terms of the confinement of particles released close to the axis. Finally, we show that for the optimization problems we consider, a risk-averse objective using the Conditional Value-at-Risk leads to results which are similar to the risk-neutral objective.

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