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Author(s):  
Malek Al-Edenat

Purpose Digital transformation becomes the future path for all organizations. Organizations are in need to progress the technology in the event of rapid environmental changes in all aspects. This implies the essential need to adapt to these changes, not only to benefit from the vast opportunities it offers yet even to stay relevant in this instability, complexity, uncertainty and vagueness environment. This paper aims to examine the impact of different variables such as disruptive change, technological process innovation and industry 4.0 (I4.0) on digital transformation. It helps identify the different capabilities needed for digitalization and digital maturity, identify the supporting methods for adopting different technologies and offer answers to overwhelmed those challenges and obstacles resulting in this environment. Design/methodology/approach A quantitative approach was used in conducting this research, whereas a questionnaire survey strategy was used for this investigation. In total, 450 participants have been surveyed from three major private mining organizations in the Jordanian context. Structural equation modeling was used for the analysis stage and hypotheses testing. Findings The results of the analysis revealed that support the direct impact of the event of disruptive change, technological process innovation on digital transformation. In addition, the results showed that there is a positive direct impact of the event of disruptive change on technological process innovation. While I4.0 was found to moderate the relationship between the event of disruptive change and digital transformation. Practical implications Decision-makers are responsible for directing their organization toward digitalization. This transformation needs capabilities that help organizations in competing and survive in this challenging environment. That is, it is essential to increase process innovation and moving toward more adoption of I4.0. However, the event of disruptive change should be considered as a motivation for the organizations rather than an obstacle. Moreover, different populations, methods and other variables that may affect digitalization may generate novel insights in further research. Originality/value Theoretically, novel insights into the event of the disruptive change and its implications have been added to the literature. The models used in the current examination provide new directions for understanding and studying digital transformation and organizational capabilities that are needed for transformation. From the managerial perspective, these findings enhance understanding of practices in which the event of disruptive change supports innovation and highlight the values added through recommending more adopting of I4.0 applications to yield more innovative harvests.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jo Lindsay Walton ◽  
Polina Levontin

The Communicating Climate Risk Toolkit (‘the Toolkit’), from the COP26 Universities Network (COP26 UN) and the Analysis under Uncertainty for Decision Makers network (AU4DM), seeks to narrow the gap between climate science and climate action, by providing insights, recommendations, and practical tools to support dialogue between scientists, decision-makers, and diverse stakeholders and communities. The Toolkit also endeavours to identify open problems and pose questions for further study and debate. The Toolkit builds on previous work by AU4DM and partly emerges from conversations at and around the COP26 Universities Network Climate Risk Summit, in September 2021, as well as survey questions shared with its participants.


Author(s):  
Carlos Alós-Ferrer ◽  
Alexander Jaudas ◽  
Alexander Ritschel

AbstractWhen confronted with new information, rational decision makers should update their beliefs through Bayes’ rule. In economics, however, new information often includes win-loss feedback (profits vs. losses, success vs. failure, upticks vs. downticks). Previous research using a well-established belief-updating paradigm shows that, in this case, reinforcement learning (focusing on past performance) creates high error rates, and increasing monetary incentives fails to elicit higher performance. But do incentives fail to increase effort, or rather does effort fail to increase performance? We use pupil dilation to show that higher incentives do result in increased cognitive effort, but the latter fails to translate into increased performance in this paradigm. The failure amounts to a “reinforcement paradox:” increasing incentives makes win-loss cues more salient, and hence effort is often misallocated in the form of an increased reliance on reinforcement processes. Our study also serves as an example of how pupil-dilation measurements can inform economics.


2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Abba Kyari Buba ◽  
Othman Ibrahim ◽  
Hafiz Muhammad Faisal Shehzad

PurposeGreenhouse effects and the need for cost savings necessitate that an organization's information technology (IT) managers design IT equipment acquisition and service provisioning policies to reduce carbon footprint and cost. Analyzing the influencing factors that influence stakeholders' attitudes toward adopting green information technology (Green-IT) is an important input in designing these policies. In essence, the research aims to investigate into the relationship between these factors and how they influence policy-makers' behavior in Nigerian manufacturing industries.Design/methodology/approachThe study develops a model based on the norm activation model (NAM) and the theory of planned behavior (TBP) to investigate the factors that influence decision-makers' intention in adopting Green-IT. A quantitative approach using a survey method is carried out to gather opinions of IT decision-makers using a random sampling technique. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) technique is applied to test the structural model and measurement model.FindingsThe study's findings support the use of the behavior model for Green-IT adoption. The study's finding indicates that subjective norms, perceived behavior control (PBC), manager's attitude, personal norm (PN), awareness of adverse consequences and the ascription of responsibility (AR) positively influence intention to adopt Green-IT.Research limitations/implicationsThe development and validation of the model are the study's theoretical contributions. The study reviewed the existing literature on the utilization of Green-IT to better understand the intention to adopt Green-IT in Nigeria. It added to the literature by identifying factors that can influence it as well as theoretical underpinnings that can fit the intentions of decision-makers. The scientific community and the industrial companies would have the chance to investigate how this integrated behavioral intention model promotes the use of Green-IT. The research predictors explained about 70.20% of the variance in the behavioral intention to adopt Green-IT.Practical implicationsResearch offers practical implications and recommendations for top management practitioners of the manufacturing industries. Business leaders can use the results of this study to develop an effective strategic IT policy for the successful adoption of Green-IT practices for enhanced productivity. The study found that decision-makers' Green-IT attitudes had a substantial impact on their behavioral intention to adopt Green-IT. The study highlighted the importance of the top management attitude toward green products to facilitate the adoption of Green-IT practices in manufacturing industries in Nigeria. Thus, the positive and significant attitude of policy-makers is a necessary tool toward the successful adoption of Green-IT. Therefore, to foster an environmentally sustainability friendly atmosphere, Nigeria's manufacturing industries shall strive to strengthen the decision-makers' attitude toward practicing Green-IT in their respective domains. The findings showed that AR, AQ, environmental concern (EC), perceived behavior and perceived behavior are critical factors to be considered in an organization.Social implicationsAccording to the findings, an individual's Green-IT attitude has a substantial impact on the environment as social behavior. As a result, the positive and essential attitude of the social sector is a key tool for efficient Green-IT implementation. Nigeria's social activists must try to create awareness campaigns to boost decision-makers' attitudes toward implementing Green-IT in their various regions to develop a friendlier environment. Thus, the identified factors can be of great help to the social sector in designing and implementing successful environmental-friendly policies that could support the adoption of Green-IT practices.Originality/valueThe current research look at Green-IT adoption in manufacturing industries of West African countries. The study offers practical implications and recommendations for top management practitioners of the manufacturing industries, government policy-makers and organizations to enhance the use of Green-IT for mitigating environmental degradation. Recommendations for future research are stated as concluding remarks.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Ratnasari D. Cahyanti ◽  
Widyawati Widyawati ◽  
Mohammad Hakimi

Abstract Background Indonesia, the largest archipelago globally with a decentralized health system, faces a stagnant high maternal mortality ratio (MMR). The disparity factors among regions and inequities in access have deterred the local assessments in preventing similar maternal deaths. This study explored the challenges of district maternal death audit (MDA) committees to provide evidence-based recommendations for local adaptive practices in reducing maternal mortality. Methods A qualitative study was conducted with four focus-group discussions in Central Java, Indonesia, between July and October 2019. Purposive sampling was used to select 7–8 members of each district audit committee. Data were analyzed using the thematic analysis approach. Triangulation was done by member checking, peer debriefing, and reviewing audit documentation. Results The district audit committees had significant challenges to develop appropriate recommendations and action plans, involving: 1) non-informative audit tool provides unreliable data for review; 2) unstandardized clinical indicators and the practice of “sharp downward, blunt upward”; 3) unaccountable hospital support and lack of leadership commitment, and 4) blaming culture, minimal training, and insufficient MDA committee’ skills. The district audit committees tended to associated maternal death in lower and higher-level health facilities (hospitals) with mismanagement and unavoidable cause, respectively. These unfavorable cultures discourage transparency and prevent continuing improvement, leading to failure in addressing maternal death’s local avoidable factors. Conclusion A productive MDA is required to provide an evidence-based recommendation. A strong partnership between the key hospital decision-makers and district health officers is needed for quality evidence-based policymaking and adaptive practice to prevent maternal death.


Author(s):  
Zhengmin Liu ◽  
Yawen Bi ◽  
Xinya Wang ◽  
Linbin Sha ◽  
Peide Liu

AbstractHow to effectively reflect the randomness and reliability of decision information under uncertain circumstances, and thereby improve the accuracy of decision-making in complex decision scenarios, has become a crucial topic in the field of uncertain decision-making. In this article, the loss –aversion behavior of decision-makers and the non-compensation between attributes are considered. Furthermore, a novel generalized TODIM-ELECTRE II method under the linguistic Z-numbers environment is proposed based on Dempster–Shafer evidence theory for multi-criteria group decision-making problems with unknown weight information. Firstly, the evaluation information and its reliability are provided simultaneously by employing linguistic Z-numbers, which have the ability to capture the arbitrariness and vagueness of natural verbal information. Then, the evaluation information is used to derive basic probability assignments in Dempster–Shafer evidence theory, and with the consideration of both inner and outer reliability, this article employed Dempster’s rule to fuse evaluations. Subsequently, a generalized TODIM-ELECTRE II method is conceived under the linguistic Z-numbers environment, which considers both compensatory effects between attributes and the bounded rationality of decision-makers. In addition, criteria weights are obtained by applying Deng entropy which has the ability to deal with uncertainty. Finally, an example of terminal wastewater solidification technology selection is offered to prove this framework’s availability and robustness. The predominance is also verified by a comparative analysis with several existing methods.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Marco Castellani ◽  
Linda Alengoz ◽  
Niccolò Casnici ◽  
Flaminio Squazzoni

AbstractThis paper investigates how reports concerning a given country’s prospects affect investment decisions in two stylized, artificial organizational settings. We designed a role-game laboratory experiment, where subjects were asked to make investment decisions for two types of fictitious companies from the same country. We found that when available reports included positive country prospects, subjects strategized more on investments regardless of the characteristics of their organization. When reports included negative prospects, however, certain organizational peculiarities influenced the subjects’ interpretations, with decision-makers opting for more prudent plans when managing a more traditional company. Cognitive maps of decision makers showed that subjects considered investment strategies as a means to fulfil a company’s role expectations regarding appropriate decisions. Notwithstanding all caveats due to the artificial and simplified nature of our experimental setting, our findings indicate the need for more research on the effect of reports and prospect analysis on strategic decisions of companies, especially when business prospects are uncertain.


2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Haile Mekonnen Fenta ◽  
Temesgen Zewotir ◽  
Essey Kebede Muluneh

Abstract Background Childhood malnutrition is a major cause of child mortality under the age of 5 in the sub-Saharan Africa region. This study sought to identify the risk factors and spatial distribution of the composite index of anthropometric failure (CIAF). Methods Secondary data from 2000, 2005, 2011, and 2016 Ethiopian Health and Demographic Survey (EDHS) were used. The generalized geo-additive mixed model was adopted via the Integrated Nested Laplace Approximation (INLA) with a binomial family and logit link function. Results The CIAF status of children was found to be positively associated with the male gender, the potency of contracting a disease, and multiple births. However, it was negatively associated with family wealth quartiles, parental level of education, place of residence, unemployment status of mothers, improved sanitation, media exposure, and survey years. Moreover, the study revealed significant spatial variations on the level of CIAF among administrative zones. Conclusions The generalized geo-additive mixed-effects model results identified gender of the child, presence of comorbidity, size of child at birth, dietary diversity, birth type, place of residence, age of the child, parental level of education, wealth index, sanitation facilities, and media exposure as main drivers of CIAF. The results would help decision-makers to develop and carry out target-oriented programs.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Author(s):  
Saeed Rouhani ◽  
Shooka Zamenian

In today’s competitive environment, one of the new tools in the field of information technology is business or organizational dashboards that are a backup in the process of strategic management of organizations. The purpose of the current research is to provide a framework to design the healthcare dashboard through technical architecture with fulfilling the decision-makers’ requirements. In this study, a common qualitative research method, metasynthesis, is applied, including a seven-step set of research questions, conducting systematic literature search and selection of suitable papers, data extraction, analysis and findings of the qualitative composition, quality control, and presentation of findings. During this process, 102 articles were found by saturation of information resources and then 12 articles were selected for extracting data using acceptance and rejection criteria. A critical evaluation method was used to evaluate the quality of selected articles. After investigating the selected articles and scoring them, in terms of quality, one article was very good, 10 articles were good, and one article was moderate. Then, with regard to the principles and guidelines of technical architecture, the required information was extracted from the selected articles and was analyzed with the method of open, axial, and selective coding. Following the steps of metasynthesis methods, the principles extracted with major and minor titles principles and guidelines in the form of multilayered system architecture including presentation layer, application layer, data layer, and technical infrastructure layer were classified. In the obtained framework, 15 indicators as the main principles and 66 subcriteria as the subsidiary principles for the design and technical architecture of enterprise dashboards were identified.


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