heating system
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2022 ◽  
Vol 50 ◽  
pp. 101870
Alicja Siuta-Olcha ◽  
Tomasz Cholewa ◽  
Mirosław Gomółka ◽  
Piotr Kołodziej ◽  
Dorte Skaarup Østergaard ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 18 (1) ◽  
pp. 48-57
Aws Al-Jrew ◽  
Jawad Mahmood ◽  
Ramzy Ali

In this article, a comparison of innovative multilevel inverter topology with standard topologies has been conducted. The proposed single phase five level inverter topology has been used for induction heating system. This suggested design generates five voltage levels with a fewer number of power switches. This reduction in number of switches decreases the switching losses and the number of driving circuits and reduce the complexity of control circuit. It also reduces the cost and size for the filter used. Analysis and comparison has been done among the conventional topologies (neutral clamped and cascade H-bridge multilevel inverters) with the proposed inverter topology. The analysis includes the total harmonic distortion THD, efficiency and overall performance of the inverter systems. The simulation and analysis have been done using MATLAB/ SIMULINK. The results show good performance for the proposed topology in comparison with the conventional topologies.

Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 611
Cecilia Ciacci ◽  
Neri Banti ◽  
Vincenzo Di Naso ◽  
Frida Bazzocchi

In Italy in 2020, only 15.5% of school building heritage was retrofitted from an energy and environmental point of view. In this paper, the cost-optimal method was applied to two different school buildings belonging to the same Italian cold climate zone but characterized by different structural and technological solutions. The research aims at defining the cost-effective redevelopment solution among several ones proposed to apply to this building type. At the same time, this paper provides a critical analysis of the methodology applied, highlighting deficiencies related to a not proper evaluation of environmentally friendly retrofitting measures. In a cost-effective context, the main results show that the intervention on the heating system is more convenient than the retrofitting of the envelope. The energy saving is equal to about 35% for both considered schools. Among the different proposed requalification configurations, the adoption of PV (photovoltaic) electric generation is included. In this regard, an optimization procedure was implemented in a generative design environment to maximize energy production with reference to different design parameters. As a result, a solution with south oriented PV modules with a tilt angle of 42° and arranged in 0.7 m spaced rows proved to be the most effective.

Foods ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 213
Lingtao Zhang ◽  
Fan Liu ◽  
Ting Wang ◽  
Shilin Wu ◽  
Yamei Jin ◽  

As an emerging electrotechnology, induced electric field has attracted extensive attention in the development of innovative heat treatment equipment. In this study, a resistance heating unit based on induced electric field was built for inner heating of aqueous electrolyte solutions as well as liquid foods, such as vinegar. NaCl solutions and liquid foods with different conductivity were used to investigate the thermal effect and temperature rise of samples. Saline gel composed of 3% agar powder and 20% NaCl acted as a coil of conductor for inducing high-level output voltage. The utilization of the saline gel coil significantly improved the power conversion efficiency of the heating unit as well as the heating rate. The results revealed that duty cycle and applied frequency had immediate impact on the efficiency of inner heating. Additionally, the rate of temperature rise was proportional to the conductivity of the sample. The temperature of 200 mL NaCl solution (0.6%) increased from 25 °C to 100 °C in 3 min at 40% duty cycle and 60 kHz of applied frequency, and it was a circulating-flow process. The maximum temperature rise of black vinegar was 39.6 °C in 15 s at 60 kHz and 60% duty cycle, while that of white vinegar was 32.2 °C in 30 s under same conditions, whereas it was a continuous-flow process. This novel heating system has realized the inner heating of liquid samples.

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