cellular structures
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2022 ◽  
Lisa Sophie Kölln ◽  
Omar Salem ◽  
Jessica Valli ◽  
Carsten Gram Hansen ◽  
Gail McConnell

Immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy is routinely used to visualise the spatial distribution of proteins that dictates their cellular function. However, unspecific antibody binding often results in high cytosolic background signals, decreasing the image contrast of a target structure. Recently, convolutional neural networks (CNNs) were successfully employed for image restoration in IF microscopy, but current methods cannot correct for those background signals. We report a new method that trains a CNN to reduce unspecific signals in IF images; we name this method label2label (L2L). In L2L, a CNN is trained with image pairs of two non-identical labels that target the same cellular structure. We show that after L2L training a network predicts images with significantly increased contrast of a target structure, which is further improved after implementing a multi-scale structural similarity loss function. Here, our results suggest that sample differences in the training data decrease hallucination effects that are observed with other methods. We further assess the performance of a cycle generative adversarial network, and show that a CNN can be trained to separate structures in superposed IF images of two targets.

2022 ◽  
Vol 119 (1) ◽  
pp. e2111505119
Jan-Hendrik Bastek ◽  
Siddhant Kumar ◽  
Bastian Telgen ◽  
Raphaël N. Glaesener ◽  
Dennis M. Kochmann

Inspired by crystallography, the periodic assembly of trusses into architected materials has enjoyed popularity for more than a decade and produced countless cellular structures with beneficial mechanical properties. Despite the successful and steady enrichment of the truss design space, the inverse design has remained a challenge: While predicting effective truss properties is now commonplace, efficiently identifying architectures that have homogeneous or spatially varying target properties has remained a roadblock to applications from lightweight structures to biomimetic implants. To overcome this gap, we propose a deep-learning framework, which combines neural networks with enforced physical constraints, to predict truss architectures with fully tailored anisotropic stiffness. Trained on millions of unit cells, it covers an enormous design space of topologically distinct truss lattices and accurately identifies architectures matching previously unseen stiffness responses. We demonstrate the application to patient-specific bone implants matching clinical stiffness data, and we discuss the extension to spatially graded cellular structures with locally optimal properties.

Kole T. Roybal ◽  
Hanin Alamir ◽  
Jiahe Lu ◽  
Christoph Wülfing

Chen Yu ◽  
Qifu Wang ◽  
Zhaohui Xia ◽  
Yingjun Wang ◽  
Chao Mei ◽  

2022 ◽  
pp. 53-76
M.A. Murphy ◽  
Mark F. Horstemeyer ◽  
Raj K. Prabhu

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