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Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 277
Sergei V. Zubkov ◽  
Ivan A. Parinov ◽  
Yulia A. Kuprina

A new series of layered perovskite-like oxides Bi3−xNdxTi1.5W0.5O9 (x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0) was synthesized by the method of high-temperature solid-state reaction, in which partial substitution of bismuth (Bi) atoms in the dodecahedra of the perovskite layer (A-positions) by Nd atoms takes place. X-ray structural studies have shown that all compounds are single-phase and have the structure of Aurivillius phases (APs), with close parameters of orthorhombic unit cells corresponding to space group A21am. The dependences of the relative permittivity ε/ε0 and the tangent of loss tgσ at different frequencies on temperature were measured. The piezoelectric constant d33 was measured for Bi3−xNdxTi1.5W0.5O9 (x = 0.25, 0.5, 0.75) compounds of the synthesized series.

Electronics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 243
Rui-Jia Xu ◽  
Yu-Sheng Lin

In recent years, tunable metamaterials have attracted intensive research interest due to their outstanding characteristics, which are dependent on the geometrical dimensions rather than the material composition of the nanostructure. Among tuning approaches, micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) is a well-known technology that mechanically reconfigures the metamaterial unit cells. In this study, the development of MEMS-based metamaterial is reviewed and analyzed based on several types of actuators, including electrothermal, electrostatic, electromagnetic, and stretching actuation mechanisms. The moveable displacement and driving power are the key factors in evaluating the performance of actuators. Therefore, a comparison of actuating methods is offered as a basic guideline for selecting micro-actuators integrated with metamaterial. Additionally, by exploiting electro-mechanical inputs, MEMS-based metamaterials make possible the manipulation of incident electromagnetic waves, including amplitude, frequency, phase, and the polarization state, which enables many implementations of potential applications in optics. In particular, two typical applications of MEMS-based tunable metamaterials are reviewed, i.e., logic operation and sensing. These integrations of MEMS with metamaterial provide a novel route for the enhancement of conventional optical devices and exhibit great potentials in innovative applications, such as intelligent optical networks, invisibility cloaks, photonic signal processing, and so on.

2022 ◽  
Thi Hong Hiep Le ◽  
Thanh Son Pham ◽  
Bui Xuan Khuyen ◽  
Bui Son Tung ◽  
Quang Minh Ngo ◽  

Abstract In this work, we investigate the propagation of magneto-inductive waves (MIWs) in ordering magnetic metamaterial (MM) structures. The proposed non-homogeneous MM slab consists of 9 × 9 MM unit cells constructed from a five-turn spiral embedded on an FR-4 substrate. External capacitors with the value of 40 pF or 50 pF were added to control the resonant frequency of each unit cell in accordance with the waveguide configurations. The characteristics of metamaterial structures, such as negative permeability, current ratio, transmission response, and field distribution in the waveguide, have been thoroughly analyzed by simulation and experiment. Because of the strong magnetic field confinement in the waveguide, the transmittance after nine elements of the non-homogeneous MM slab is 5.2 times greater than that of the homogeneous MM slab. This structure can be applied to the planar near-field wireless power transfer, position sensor, and low-frequency communication.

Photonics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 39
Feng Tang ◽  
Qingzhi Li ◽  
Haichao Yu ◽  
Zao Yi ◽  
Xin Ye

Background: Optical components with high damage thresholds are very desirable in intense-light systems. Metalenses, being composed of phase-control nanostructures with peculiar properties, are one of the important component candidates in future optical systems. However, the optothermal mechanism in metalenses is still not investigated adequately. Methods: In this study, the optothermal absorption in transmissive metalenses made of silicon nanobricks and nanoholes is investigated comparatively to address this issue. Results: The geometrical dependencies of nanostructures’ transmittance, phase difference, and field distribution are calculated numerically via simulations. To demonstrate the optothermal mechanism in metalenses, the mean absorption efficiencies of the selected unit-cells, which would constitute metalenses, are analyzed. The results show that the electric field in the silicon zone would lead to an obvious thermal effect, and the enhancement of the localized electric field also results in the strong absorption of optical energy. Then, two typical metalenses are designed based on these nanobricks and nanoholes. The optothermal simulations show that the nanobrick-based metalens can handle a power density of 0.15 W/µm2, and the density of the nanohole-based design is 0.12 W/µm2. Conclusions: The study analyzes and compares the optothermal absorption in nanobricks and nanoholes, which shows that the electric-field distribution in absorbent materials and the localized-field enhancement are the two key effects that lead to optothermal absorption. This study provides an approach to improve the anti-damage potentials of transmissive metalenses for intense-light systems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Mei Wu ◽  
Xiaowei Zhang ◽  
Xiaomei Li ◽  
Ke Qu ◽  
Yuanwei Sun ◽  

AbstractFlexoelectricity is a type of ubiquitous and prominent electromechanical coupling, pertaining to the electrical polarization response to mechanical strain gradients that is not restricted by the symmetry of materials. However, large elastic deformation is usually difficult to achieve in most solids, and the strain gradient at minuscule is challenging to control. Here, we exploit the exotic structural inhomogeneity of grain boundary to achieve a huge strain gradient (~1.2 nm−1) within 3–4-unit cells, and thus obtain atomic-scale flexoelectric polarization of up to ~38 μC cm−2 at a 24° LaAlO3 grain boundary. Accompanied by the generation of the nanoscale flexoelectricity, the electronic structures of grain boundaries also become different. Hence, the flexoelectric effect at grain boundaries is essential to understand the electrical activities of oxide ceramics. We further demonstrate that for different materials, altering the misorientation angles of grain boundaries enables tunable strain gradients at the atomic scale. The engineering of grain boundaries thus provides a general and feasible pathway to achieve tunable flexoelectricity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Jinxing Li ◽  
Guohui Yang ◽  
Yueyi Yuan ◽  
Qun Wu ◽  
Kuang Zhang

The metasurface-based superoscillatory lens has been demonstrated to be effective in finely tailoring the wavefront of light to generate focal spots beyond the diffraction limit in the far-field that is capable of improving the resolution of the imaging system. In this paper, an ultra-thin (0.055 λ0) metasurface-based superoscillatory lens (SOL) that can generate a sub-diffraction optical needle with a long focal depth is proposed, which is constructed by ultra-thin chiral unit cells containing two metal split-ring resonators (SRR) with a 90° twisted angle difference cladded on both sides of a 1.5 mm-thick dielectric substrate, with a high linear cross-polarized transmission coefficient around 0.9 and full phase control capability at 11 GHz. Full-wave simulation shows that SOL generates a sub-diffraction optical needle within 10.5–11.5 GHz. At the center frequency, the focal depth is 281 mm (10.3 λ0) within 105–386 mm, the full width at half maximum (FWHM) is 18.5 mm (0.68 λ0), about 0.7 times the diffraction limit, generally consistent with the theoretical result. The proposed ultra-thin chiral metasurface-based SOL holds great potential in integrating into practical imaging applications for its simple fabrication, high efficiency, and low-profile advantages.

2022 ◽  
Mengmeng Li ◽  
Mengmeng Li ◽  
Filiberto Bilotti

<p>Space-time-modulated metasurfaces can manipulate electromagnetic waves in space and frequency domain simultaneously. In this paper, an analytical design of space-time- modulated metasurfaces with modulation elements composed of two paths, In-phase (I) and Quadrature (Q), is proposed. The model is derived analytically, the space/frequency domain manipulations are achieved by designing the dimension and time sequence of I and Q paths. In the specular reflection direction, an objective frequency shift of the reflected first order harmonic can be obtained. While, in other directions, the opposite first order harmonic can be easily controlled by changing the dimension of I/Q paths and the objective first order harmonic remains unchanged. Furthermore, with a small dimension of I/Q paths, the first order harmonic can be used for beam scanning by pre-designing the start time of the modulation element. To realize the space-time-modulated metasurface with the required periodically time-varying responses, 2-bit unit-cells loaded with dynamically switchable pin diodes are employed as I/Q modulation. Both analytical and numerical results demonstrate that space and frequency domain manipulations of the reflected fields by the first order harmonics can be simultaneously obtained. The proposed designs have potential applications in wireless communications, radar camouflaging, and cloaking.<br></p>

Ramin Hamzehei ◽  
Ali Zolfagharian ◽  
Soheil Dariushi ◽  
Mahdi Bodaghi

Abstract This study aims at introducing a number of two-dimensional (2D) re-entrant based zero Poisson’s ratio (ZPR) graded metamaterials for energy absorption applications. The metamaterials’ designs are inspired by the 2D image of a DNA molecule. This inspiration indicates how a re-entrant unit cell must be patterned along with the two orthogonal directions to obtain a ZPR behavior. Also, how much metamaterials’ energy absorption capacity can be enhanced by taking slots and horizontal beams into account with the inspiration of the DNA molecule’s base pairs. The ZPR metamaterials comprise multi-stiffness unit cells, so-called soft and stiff re-entrant unit cells. The variability in unit cells’ stiffness is caused by the specific design of the unit cells. A finite element analysis (FEA) is employed to simulate the deformation patterns of the ZPRs. Following that, meta-structures are fabricated with 3D printing of TPU as hyperelastic materials to validate the FEA results. A good correlation is observed between FEA and experimental results. The experimental and numerical results show that due to the presence of multi-stiffness re-entrant unit cells, the deformation mechanisms and the unit cells’ densifications are adjustable under quasi-static compression. Also, the structure designed based on the DNA molecule’s base pairs, so-called structure F''', exhibits the highest energy absorption capacity. Apart from the diversity in metamaterial unit cells’ designs, the effect of multi-thickness cell walls is also evaluated. The results show that the diversity in cell wall thicknesses leads to boosting the energy absorption capacity. In this regard, the energy absorption capacity of structure ‘E’ enhances by up to 33% than that of its counterpart with constant cell wall thicknesses. Finally, a comparison in terms of energy absorption capacity and stability between the newly designed ZPRs, traditional ZPRs, and auxetic metamaterial is performed, approving the superiority of the newly designed ZPR metamaterials over both traditional ZPRs and auxetic metamaterials.

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