social comparison
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Body Image ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 40 ◽  
pp. 124-130
Jeanne J. Carter ◽  
Lenny R. Vartanian

2022 ◽  
Vol 186 ◽  
pp. 111355
Marianne E. Etherson ◽  
Thomas Curran ◽  
Martin M. Smith ◽  
Simon B. Sherry ◽  
Andrew P. Hill

Giulia Fioravanti ◽  
Sara Bocci Benucci ◽  
Giulia Ceragioli ◽  
Silvia Casale

AbstractSharing and viewing photos on social networking sites (SNSs) have been identified as particularly problematic for body image. Although correlational research to date has established that SNS use is associated with increased body dissatisfaction, only experimental studies can enhance confidence in the conclusions drawn. For this reason, this systematic review synthesizes data from 43 experimental studies (N = 8637; %F = 89.56; mean age = 21.58 ± 1.78) examining the effect of viewing idealized images (i.e., attractive, thin, and fit) and body positive content on SNSs on body image. Two studies were conducted on adolescents. Each study had slight variations in how the images were presented for each category (e.g., selfies and photos taken by others). The wide variability in experimental stimuli and psychological moderators used in the published research make a systematic review more feasible and meaningful than a meta-analysis. Findings indicate that viewing idealized images on SNSs lead to increased body dissatisfaction among young women and men. State appearance comparison (i.e., engaging in social comparison while viewing images) significantly mediated the effect, whereas trait appearance comparison (i.e., the relatively stable general tendency to engage in social comparison) was a significant moderator. Mixed results were found regarding the exposure to body positive images/captions. Viewing images on SNSs depicting unattainable beauty ideals leads young people to feel dissatisfied about their bodies, with appearance comparison processing playing an important role. More research is required to assess the long-term effects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Marjorie Valls

Forced social comparison (i.e., comparing oneself to another “predefined” student) has often been studied in school settings. However, to our knowledge, studies that explore its association with academic self-concept have rarely distinguished between subjects involved (e.g., mathematics or language learning). Moreover, some processes taking place during forced social comparison are thought to have a negative impact on academic self-concept. Thus, the aims of this study were to explore: 1) the associations between self-concepts (i.e., Language learning, Mathematics and Social), attitudes towards school and social comparison processes in school settings; and 2) the influence of social comparison processes on components of academic self-concept across gender. A sample of 238 elementary school students (Mage = 10.12, SD = 1.25; 52% boys) completed a questionnaire assessing self-concepts and attitudes towards school, as well as a questionnaire measuring four social comparison processes. Results indicated that girls used negative processes (i.e., upward contrast and downward identification) more than boys. In addition, boys reported better self-concept in mathematics while girls reported better self-concept in language learning (small effect). Results of stepwise multiple linear regression analyses showed that upward contrast best explained gender differences, with a stronger effect for girls. Attitudes towards school only explained gender differences in language learning self-concept. Furthermore, positive processes (i.e., upward identification and downward contrast) have no effect on either component of academic self-concept. Results of this study demonstrate the need to examine the evolution of social comparison processes over time, considering their impact on students’ academic/social well-being and achievement from a gender perspective.

2022 ◽  
pp. 147078532110638
Sowon Ahn ◽  
Myung-Soo Jo ◽  
Emine Sarigollu ◽  
Chang Soo Kim

Ads often feature celebrities or others similar to the target viewer and thereby evoke envy. Envy occurs when people make an upward social comparison, and evoked envy can be either benign or malicious. The authors propose that people with different self-construals feel different degrees of benign and malicious envy depending on who is being envied: a celebrity or a similar other. Three studies were conducted comparing Americans to Koreans (Study 1), Americans to the Chinese (Study 2), and Koreans with different self-construals (Study 3). The results showed that people with high independence showed less benign envy toward the celebrity ad than toward the similar others ad, while people with low independence showed the opposite pattern. People with high interdependence showed less malicious envy toward the celebrity ad than toward the similar others ad, while people with low interdependence showed the opposite pattern.

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