Frontiers in Education
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2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yuchen Song ◽  
Michael M Barger ◽  
Kristen L. Bub

Parents’ educational beliefs are thought to guide children’s early development in school. The present study explored the association between parent’s growth mindset and elementary school-aged children’s self-reported persistence, as well as teacher-reported reading and math skills in 102 dyads. Findings showed that children self-reported greater persistence when their parents held more growth mindset. Teachers also rated students as more capable readers when their parents endorsed a growth, rather than fixed, mindset. Additional analysis indicated that although the effect of parents’ growth mindset on children’s reading skills became non-significant once SES was controlled, the positive association between parents’ mindset and children’s persistence was unaffected by SES. Our study provides evidence about the intergenerational association of motivational tendencies at an early age, even when children may not be able to develop a coherent system of motivational beliefs of their own.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Author(s):  
W. Jake Thompson ◽  
Brooke Nash

Learning progressions and learning map structures are increasingly being used as the basis for the design of large-scale assessments. Of critical importance to these designs is the validity of the map structure used to build the assessments. Most commonly, evidence for the validity of a map structure comes from procedural evidence gathered during the learning map creation process (e.g., research literature, external reviews). However, it is also important to provide support for the validity of the map structure with empirical evidence by using data gathered from the assessment. In this paper, we propose a framework for the empirical validation of learning maps and progressions using diagnostic classification models. Three methods are proposed within this framework that provide different levels of model assumptions and types of inferences. The framework is then applied to the Dynamic Learning Maps® alternate assessment system to illustrate the utility and limitations of each method. Results show that each of the proposed methods have some limitations, but they are able to provide complementary information for the evaluation of the proposed structure of content standards (Essential Elements) in the Dynamic Learning Maps assessment.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Author(s):  
Fredrik Breien ◽  
Barbara Wasson

STEAM education enables the cross-curricular study of subjects based on their naturally occurring relationships through holistic and integrated methods. Narratives are enablers of STEAM learning environments, something that is evident in the exploration of narrative learning from pre-recorded history until present. Narrative Digital Game-Based Learning (DGBL) use narratives to drive the game. The extended Ludo Narrative Variable Model (the Variable Model) is a narratological model for categorization of narrative DGBL. Empirical evidence from categorizing narrative DGBL on the Variable Model shows that there is a particular set of categories that incur positive effects on engagement, motivation, and learning. This article introduces the eLuna co-design framework that builds on these categories and empowers educators to participate alongside game developers in multidisciplinary design and development of narrative DGBL. eLuna comprises 1) a four-phase co-design method, and 2) a visual language to support the co-design and co-specification of the game to a blueprint that can be implement by game developers. Idun’s Apples, a narrative DGBL co-designed, co-specified, and implemented into a prototype using eLuna, is presented to illustrate the use of the method and visual language. Arguing that narrative DGBL are vessels for STEAM learning, seven eLuna co-designed games are examined to illustrate that they support STEAM. The article concludes that narrative DGBL co-designed using the eLuna framework provide high opportunity and potential for supporting STEAM, providing educators and game developers with a STEAM co-design framework that enforces positive effects on engagement, motivation, and learning.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tanya Chichekian ◽  
Léa Bragoli-Barzan ◽  
Sonia Rahimi

When it comes to accessibility to healthcare and medical education, inequalities prevail within ethnically diverse populations, especially among Indigenous Peoples. The main objective of this qualitative study was to explore how Indigenous female medical students’ motivations played a role in their pursuit of a medical career. We use the Self-Determination theory to frame this study and conduct individual open-ended interviews with four female Indigenous students’ regarding their motivational sources for applying to medical school. We provide an illustrative scenario for each identified motivational source through a thematic analysis. Results revealed two main sources of motivations: (Jones et al., Acad Med, 2019, 94 (4), 512–519) pedagogical experiences (i.e., contextual factors at school, academic interests, and opportunities) and (Sloof et al., Med Educ, 2021, 55 (5), 653) personal experiences (i.e., family support and influence, and future career prospects). Indigenous students’ personal experiences were more prevalent and described autonomous forms of motivations, whereas sources of motivation that were pedagogically oriented reflected more controlled forms of motivations. Different types of motivations can be useful, but not sufficient for the tipping point when the time comes for medical school applications. Learning about specialized Indigenous streams for admissions played the most influential role in students’ decision-making to pursue medical studies. Promoting the visibility of the Indigenous stream coupled with the identification of different forms of motivation could be informative when outlining evidence-based recommendations with the aim of improving inequalities within the health professions.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Author(s):  
Johanna Dittmar ◽  
Ingo Eilks

In today’s society, digital media play an increasing role in gathering and exchanging information. A growing part of communication takes place in the Internet and many people are increasingly influenced by information provided via digital and social media. Development of critical media literacy is needed, if the general public is expected to effectively deal with this flood of information and to become able to distinguish between correct and false information sources. Thus, critical media education becomes an important aim of education in general, and of chemistry education in particular when considering questions directly related to chemistry and its associated consumer products or technologies. The article describes a curriculum development case study investigating the integration of media education with chemistry learning along the case of learning with and about Internet forums on the topic of water chemistry. A unit integrating theoretical and practical chemistry learning based on student communication is described, which is built around a digital forum operated by Moodle. The unit design and findings from the implementation are presented.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Author(s):  
Paul Lam ◽  
Alan Tse

Gamification refers to the use of game elements in non-game context to improve user experience and engagement (Deterding et al., 2011a). The potential of games to make learning more engaging has been widely noted by educators and researchers. Many of the applications and research studies in this area focused on non-customizable digital games that are designed for a specific group and a narrow range of subject content. In actual classrooms, however, non-customizable digital games may not be flexible enough to enable teachers to adapt gamification into practice. Hence, teachers sometimes use a mixed set of strategies to flexibly embed game-based mechanics into their teaching. How can different gamification tools be applied in classrooms? Based on classroom observations and teacher interviews from schools from primary to secondary level in Hong Kong, this paper explores the role of gamification in real practice. We frame the discussion based on the following approaches with ranging levels of flexibility: versatile gamification, gamification platform, and rigid gamification. Versatile gamification was seen as more feasible compared with the other two approaches. We also examine how game-based mechanics such as competition, rules, graphics, and achievements are used to enrich classroom interaction. It was found that gamification is already popular in the classroom. Follow up interviews with teachers suggested that game is a powerful way to engage students. Good practices in game-based lesson design and potentials for further development of gamification tools are discussed.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Author(s):  
Elena N. Malyuga ◽  
Gayane O. Petrosyan

The paper aims to single out critical success factors contributing to efficient implementation of distance learning practices and to explain the role of project-based learning in ensuring effective teaching of profession-oriented foreign language in a distance format. The authors argue in favor of distance learning as a beneficial educational tool providing for the training of large groups of people regardless of the place of residence and placing a priority on students’ individual capacities. Study design included a preliminary survey of 150 respondents specializing in the natural sciences and the humanities identifying the key analysis criteria, a complex of experimental online lessons incorporating project-based teaching principles, and a summarizing questionnaire verifying respondents’ post-experiment outlooks. The methodology of empirical research was based on a systematic approach and deployed the methods of pedagogical observation, project-based teaching, sociological research, and statistical analysis using Neural Designer software for calculating questionnaire results. Analyzing the obtained results, the authors conclude that: 1) Students specializing in the humanities have a higher motivation to study related minor subjects; 2) interdisciplinary integration using the English language allows to achieve a cumulative effect for major and related minor subjects; 3) interdisciplinary integration based on the project method is an effective means of improving academic performance in major subjects; 4) interdisciplinary integration based on the project method makes it possible to acquaint students with the best practices in their chosen specialty; 5) project method allows to achieve related didactic goals—self-expression, independent continuous learning and the formation of professional competencies.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Author(s):  
Johanne Paradis ◽  
Tamara Sorenson Duncan ◽  
Stephanie Thomlinson ◽  
Brian Rusk

Over-identification of language disorder among bilingual children with typical development (TD) is a risk factor in assessment. One strategy for improving assessment accuracy with bilingual children is to determine which linguistic sub-domains differentiate bilingual children with TD from bilingual children with developmental language disorder (DLD). To date, little research on sequential bilinguals with TD and DLD has focussed on complex (multi-clausal) sentences in naturalistic production, even though this is a noted domain of weakness for school-age monolinguals with DLD. Accordingly, we sought to determine if there were differences in the use of complex sentences in conversational and narrative tasks between school-age sequential bilinguals with TD and with DLD at the early stages of L2 acquisition. We administered a conversation and a narrative task to 63 English L2 children with TD and DLD, aged 5–7 years with 2 years of exposure to the L2. Children had diverse first language backgrounds. The L2-TD and L2-DLD groups were matched for age, length of L2 exposure and general L2 proficiency (receptive vocabulary size). Language samples from both tasks were coded and analyzed for the use of complex versus simple sentences, for the distribution of complex sentence types, for clausal density and mean length of utterance (MLU). Complex sentences included coordinated clauses, sentential complement clauses, adverbial clauses and relative clauses. Using regression modelling and PERMANOVA, we found that the L2-TD group produced more complex sentences than the L2-DLD group, with coordinated clauses, adverbial clauses and relative clauses differing the most between the groups. Furthermore, the two groups differed for mean clausal density, but not for MLU, indicating that clausal density and MLU did not estimate identical morphosyntactic abilities. Individual variation in complex sentence production for L2-TD was predicted by longer L2 exposure and task; by contrast, for L2-DLD, it was predicted by older age. This study indicates that complex sentence production is an area of weakness for bilingual children with DLD, as it is for monolinguals with DLD. The clinical implications of these findings are discussed.


2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Author(s):  
Barbara Chiu ◽  
Christopher Randles ◽  
Stefan Irby

Problem-solving has been recognized as a critical skill that students lack in the current education system, due to the use of algorithmic questions in tests that can be simply memorized and solved without conceptual understanding. Research on student problem-solving is needed to gain deeper insight into how students are approaching problems and where they lack proficiency so that instruction can help students gain a conceptual understanding of chemistry. The MAtCH (methods, analogies, theory, context, how) model was recently developed from analyzing expert explanations of their research and could be a valuable model to identify key components of student problem-solving. Using phenomenography, this project will address the current gap in the literature of applying the MAtCH model to student responses. Twenty-two undergraduate students from first-year general chemistry and general physics classes were recorded using a think-aloud protocol as they worked through the following open-ended problems: 1) How many toilets do you need at a music festival? 2) How far does a car travel before one atom layer is worn off the tires? 3)What is the mass of the Earth’s atmosphere? The original definitions of MAtCH were adapted to better fit student problem-solving, and then the newly defined model was used as an analytical framework to code the student transcripts. Applying the MAtCH model within student problem-solving has revealed a reliance on the method component, namely, using formulas and performing simple plug-and-chug calculations, over deeper analysis of the question or evaluation of their work. More important than the order of the components, the biggest differences in promoted versus impeded problem-solving are how students incorporate multiple components of MAtCH and apply them as they work through the problems. The results of this study will further discuss in detail the revisions made to apply MAtCH definitions to student transcripts and give insight into the elements that promote and impede student problem-solving under the MAtCH model.


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