Young Adults
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2021 ◽  
Vol 49 ◽  
pp. 296-303
Truc H. Le

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (4) ◽  
pp. 942
Efendy Xu ◽  
Tara Yen Siang Tan ◽  
Hao Wang ◽  
Chen Sung Wong ◽  
KamYan Chong ◽  

<span lang="EN-MY">This study aimed to examine types of expressive writing and the underlying themes that will lead to the reduction of depression symptoms. We hypothesized that positive experience writing will significantly reduce depressive symptoms as compared to other types of expressive writing. This study recruited 45 young adults (17 men, 28 women) between 20 and 28 years old to perform online expressive writing for a four-week period and fill in the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) before and after the treatment. Our findings suggested that positive expressive writing led to a significantly greater reduction of depressive symptoms as compared to other types of expressive writing. The qualitative analysis showed that there are eight common themes in positive writing that might contribute to the reduction of symptoms: companionship, mattering, gratitude, positive emotions, energetic, motivation, relaxation, and delicious food. Limitations and implications of the findings are discussed.</span>

2021 ◽  
Vol 238 ◽  
pp. 54-61
Clémence Feller ◽  
Laura Ilen ◽  
Stephan Eliez ◽  
Maude Schneider

Jenny Weinbrand-Goichberg ◽  
Efrat Ben Shalom ◽  
Choni Rinat ◽  
Sapir Choshen ◽  
Shimrit Tzvi-Behr ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Nuria V. Aguerre ◽  
Carlos J. Gómez-Ariza ◽  
Antonio J. Ibáñez-Molina ◽  
M. Teresa Bajo

While scientific interest in understanding the grit trait has grown exponentially in recent years, one important gap in the grit literature relates to its biological and neural substrate. In the present study, we adopted a hypotheses-driven approach in a large sample of young adults (N = 120) with diverse educational backgrounds and work experiences in order to investigate the electrophysiological correlates of grit both during rest and while performing a learning task. Additionally, we selected a measure of impulsiveness to better understand the neural similarities and differences between grit and related self-control constructs. Based on previous work that implicated the prefrontal cortex in grit, we hypothesized that high grit participants would have lower frontal theta/beta ratio (a broadly used index that reflects prefrontally-mediated top–down processes, which might indicate better control over subcortical information). Furthermore, we expected the perseverance of effort facet of grit to be linked to higher complexity during task engagement because previous research has shown complexity indexes (entropy and fractal dimension) to be linked to effort while performing cognitive tasks. Our results revealed that although there were no differences at rest as a function of grit, the participants with high grit and high consistency of interest scores exhibited lower frontal theta/beta ratios during the learning task. This pattern suggests that individual differences in grit might be more evident when top-down control processes are at work. Furthermore, there was a positive association between perseverance of effort and entropy at task, which might indicate more effort and engagement in the task. Finally, no association was found between the neural indexes (frontal theta/beta ratio, entropy, or fractal dimension) and impulsiveness, neither impulsiveness mediated between grit and brain measures. Finally, when controlling for impulsiveness and demographic variables (gender, age, education, and work experience) the effects at the facet level remained statistically significant. While there is still a long way to fully understand the neural mechanisms of grit, the present work constitutes a step toward unveiling the electrophysiological prints of grit.

Wenfei Zhu ◽  
Yunfeng Li ◽  
Bingqi Wang ◽  
Chenxi Zhao ◽  
Tongzhou Wu ◽  

Purpose: Regular physical activity (PA) strengthens muscles and improves balance and coordination of human body. The aim of this study was to examine whether objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors were related to static balance in young men and women. Design and setting: Cross-sectional community study. Participants: 86 healthy adults (50% women) aged 21.26 ± 2.11 years. Method: PA variables, including moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), light PA (LPA), sedentary time (SED), and sedentary breaks, were measured by accelerometers on wrist (ActiGraph WGT3X-BT). The static balance was tested in the bipedal stance with eyes open or closed. The movement of the center of pressure, including total sway path length (SP), sway velocity (SV), and sway area (SA), was recorded with a three-dimensional force platform (Kistler 9287CA). The associations between PA (MVPA/LPA/SED/sedentary breaks) and static balance (SP/SV/SA) were analyzed using mixed linear regression analyses, with adjustments for condition (eyes open/closed), sex, age, body mass index (BMI), total device wearing time, and PA*condition. Data were analyzed with SPSS 24.0. Results: Better performance was observed in eyes-open condition (p < 0.05). MVPA was negatively associated with SA (p = 0.030), and SED was positively associated with SA after adjustments, respectively (p = 0.0004). No significance was found in the association of light PA, SED, or sedentary breaks with other static balance variables, respectively (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Increasing MVPA and less SED are associated with lower sway area measured by force platform, indicating more PA may related to better static balance in young adults.

Atasoy Seryan ◽  
Middeke Martin ◽  
Johar Hamimatunnisa ◽  
Peters Annette ◽  
Heier Margit ◽  

AbstractThe clinical significance of isolated systolic hypertension in young adults (ISHY) remains a topic of debate due to evidence ISHY could be a spurious condition resulting from exageratted pulse pressure amplification in “young tall men with elastic arteries”. Hence, we aimed to investigate whether ISHY is associated with an increased risk of cardivascular (CVD) mortality in a sample of 5597 young adults (49.8% men, 50.2% women) between 25 and 45 years old from the prospective population-based MONICA/KORA cohort. ISHY was prevalent in 5.2% of the population, affecting mostly men (73.1%), and associated with increased smoking, obesity, and hypercholesterolemia in comparison to participants with normal blood pressure (BP). Within a follow-up period of 25.3 years (SD ± 5.2; 141,768 person–years), 133(2.4%) CVD mortality cases were observed. Participants with ISHY had a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.89(1.01–3.53, p < 0.05) times higher risk of CVD mortality than participants with normal BP, even following adjustment for CVD risk factors. However, adjustment for antihypertensive medication (HR 0.46; 0.26–0.81, p < 0.001) and increasing height (HR 0.96; 0.93–0.99, p < 0.05) revealed independently protective effects against CVD mortality, suggesting that although ISHY is associated with an increased risk of CVD mortality, the protective effects of increasing height or antihypertensive medication should be considered in treatment rationale.

Siti Khadijah Zainal Badri ◽  
Min Yao Kong ◽  
Wan Mohd Azam Wan Mohd Yunus ◽  
Nor Akmar Nordin ◽  
Wai Meng Yap

Perfectionism or a tendency to aim for an unrealistic standard can impair happiness. However, the potential mechanisms of perfectionism to explain the association between trait emotional intelligence (EI) and happiness are still understudied. This study explores the mediating role of perfectionism in the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) and happiness among young adults. A cross-sectional sample of 259 young adults aged between 18 to 35 years old was recruited. All analyses were conducted using SPSS and AMOS Structural Equation Modeling. High trait EI was linked to low perfectionism and high happiness levels. Furthermore, perfectionism mediated the relationship between trait EI and happiness. Although high trait EI lowered maladaptive perfectionism, the negative impact of maladaptive perfectionism remained and subsequently led to decreasing happiness levels of young adults. This study offers an enhanced understanding of the role of perfectionism in explaining the happiness state of young adults. Moreover, it provides practical implications for using trait EI and managing perfectionism tendency to manage the happiness and wellbeing of the young adult population.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (10) ◽  
pp. e0258357
Kei Yamamoto ◽  
Michiyo Suzuki ◽  
Mugen Ujiie ◽  
Shuzo Kanagawa ◽  
Norio Ohmagari

Rubella and measles outbreaks in adults occur because of unimmunized or partially immunized status. Travel clinics play an important role in catch-up measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella immunization for adults. We evaluated the need for catch-up measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella immunization by young adults at our travel clinic. This retrospective observational study was conducted at the National Center for Global Health and Medicine from June 1, 2017 to May 31, 2018. Adults aged 16–49 years who received pre-travel consultation and had childhood immunization records were included. Individuals who fully or partially received planned measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella catch-up immunization were classified as “immunized.” We calculated the proportion of “immunized” individuals and analyzed the factors associated with catch-up measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella immunization at pre-travel consultation using logistic regression analysis. Overall, 3,456 individuals received pre-travel consultations during the study period; 827 (336 men, median age 22 years) had childhood immunization records. The most common trip purposes were study (33%) and tourism (24%). The most common destination was Asia (39%). Catch-up immunization of any measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella vaccine was needed by 755 individuals. After consultation, 20–46% of these participants who needed catchup immunization received at least one dose of immunization. Factors that are negatively associated with measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella catch-up immunization were tourism (odds ratio 0.37 to 0.58), yellow fever vaccination (0.45 to 0.50) (excluding varicella), and each disease history (0.13 to 0.40) (excluding rubella and varicella). Further studies are needed to identify barriers to catch-up immunization.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Paula Ibáñez de Aldecoa ◽  
Sanne de Wit ◽  
Sabine Tebbich

In a competitive and ever-changing world, the ability to generate outstanding ideas is crucial. However, this process can be impeded by factors such as fixation on ideas that emerged through prior experience. The aim of the present study was to shed light on the fixating effect of habits on creativity. To this end, healthy young adults were asked to generate alternative uses for items that differed in their frequency of use in the Alternative Uses Task (a standardized test for divergent thinking). We predicted that frequent past use of an item would lead to the formation of stimulus-response associations between the item and its most frequent use(s) and thereby hinder idea generation. Indeed, individuals were less flexible (but more fluent) in generating ideas for frequently used items than for unknown items. Additionally, we found that subjective automaticity of idea generation was negatively related with flexibility. Finally, we investigated whether individual differences in general habit tendency influence creativity, by relating performance on the Slips-of-Action task (an outcome devaluation paradigm extensively used in habit research) to performance on the Alternative Uses Task, the Candle Problem (a classic convergent thinking task) and two puzzles (non-conventional problem-solving tasks). While we did not find a significant relationship between habit tendency and the Alternative Uses Task or the Candle Problem scores, the tendency to rely on habits predicted probability to succeed and latency to solve one of the puzzles: less habit-prone participants were more likely to solve it and to do so faster. In conclusion, our study provides evidence for the notion that habits can negatively impact creativity and opens promising future avenues of research in this field.

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