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2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (11) ◽  
pp. 57-64
Author(s):  
Fadi Al Khasawneh

This study aimed at exploring the linguistic mitigating devices of requests used by Saudi EFL learners. The participants of this study were 97 students enrolled in the English program at King Khalid University, Saudi Arabia. The data of this study were collected by Discourse Completion Test (DCT) questionnaire designed for the purpose of this study. The questionnaire contained five different situations of request and the factor of Social Distance (SD) was incorporated to investigate any differences of the learners’ request strategies attributed to this factor. The data were classified according to the Cross-Cultural Study of Speech Act Realization Patterns (CCSARP) by Blum-Kulka and Olshtain (1984). The findings of this study revealed that the participants preferred to use internal mitigating devices more frequently than external ones. They also were more direct when making requests and it seems that social distance does not play a significant role in the students’ modification strategies of requests.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nicolas Spatola ◽  
Serena Marchesi ◽  
Agnieszka Wykowska

Anthropomorphism describes the tendency to ascribe nonhuman agents with characteristics and capacities such as cognitions, intentions, or emotions. Due to the increased interest in social robotic, anthropomorphism has become a core concept of human-robot interaction (HRI) studies. However, the wide use of this concept resulted in an interchangeability of its definition along with a lack of integrative approaches. In the present study, we propose a framework of anthropomorphism encompassing three levels of integration: cultural (i.e. animism beliefs), individual (i.e. mentalization, spiritualization, humanization tendencies), and attributional (i.e. cognition, emotion, intention attributions). We also acknowledge the westernized bias of the current view of anthropomorphism and develop a cross-cultural approach. In two studies, participants from different cultures completed various tasks and questionnaires assessing their animism beliefs, individual tendencies to imbue robots with mental properties (i.e. mentalization), spirit (i.e. spiritualization), and consider them as more or less human (i.e. humanization). We also evaluated their attributions of mental anthropomorphic characteristics to robots (i.e. cognition, emotion, intention). Our results demonstrate, in both experiments, that the three levels model reliably explain the collected data and that culture modulates the integration point of the cultural beliefs at the individual level. In addition, in experiment 2, the analyses show a more anthropocentric view of the mind for Western than East-Asian participants do. As such, Western perception of robots depends more on humanization while mentalization is the core of the East-Asian participant model. We further discuss these results in relation to the anthropomorphism literature and argue for the use of integrative cross-cultural model in HRI research.


2021 ◽  
Vol 75 (3) ◽  
pp. 428-447
Author(s):  
Rebecca Joubin ◽  
Sophia Nissler

Looking at programs from the 1960s onward, this article shows the persistence and evolution of the gender imbalance in Syrian television characters' relationships with Germany. Before the 2011 uprising, screenwriters linked women charac ters to Germany as a way to challenge patriarchal standards of sexuality and gendered conceptions of national belonging. As the war has ensued, this trope has vanished. Meanwhile, long-standing narratives about men emigrating to Germany continue to represent abandonment of the homeland and have become intensified through nationalist nostalgia.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
James L. Flexner

Over a span of 1000 years beginning around 800CE, the people of the Pacific Islands undertook a remarkable period of voyaging, political evolution, and cross-cultural interactions. Polynesian navigators encountered previously uninhabited lands, as well as already inhabited islands and the coast of the Americas. Island societies saw epic sagas of political competition and intrigue, documented through oral traditions and the monuments and artefacts recovered through archaeology. European entry into the region added a new episode of interaction with strange people from over the horizon. These histories provide an important cross-cultural perspective for the concept of 'the Middle Ages' from outside of the usual Old World focus.


2021 ◽  
pp. 003776862110612
Author(s):  
Laura Rival

I review the contributions to this special issue by focusing on the relational qualities that bind people and plants together through religious ritualization of economic activities such as crop cultivation or plant gathering in the wild. I show how an attention to plants as teachers facilitates cross-cultural comparative analysis.


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (4) ◽  
pp. 31-47
Author(s):  
A. Artyomov

This paper examines the methodological and cross-cultural aspects implemented in the British textbooks of Russian, Colloquial Russian: the Complete Course for Beginners and Colloquial Russian 2: the Next Step in Language Learning, and in the two volumes of the Russian textbook of English, Angliiskiy Shag za Shagom (English Step by Step). The article presents their structure, advantages and disadvantages. By way of conclusion, the author gives some considerations concerning the development of high-quality textbooks of foreign languages, and demonstrates a personally designed sample lesson.


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