automated driving
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2022 ◽  
Vol 54 (9) ◽  
pp. 1-37
Pasika Ranaweera ◽  
Anca Jurcut ◽  
Madhusanka Liyanage

The future of mobile and internet technologies are manifesting advancements beyond the existing scope of science. The concepts of automated driving, augmented-reality, and machine-type-communication are quite sophisticated and require an elevation of the current mobile infrastructure for launching. The fifth-generation (5G) mobile technology serves as the solution, though it lacks a proximate networking infrastructure to satisfy the service guarantees. Multi-access Edge Computing (MEC) envisages such an edge computing platform. In this survey, we are revealing security vulnerabilities of key 5G-based use cases deployed in the MEC context. Probable security flows of each case are specified, while countermeasures are proposed for mitigating them.

Feng Gao ◽  
Jianwei Mu ◽  
Xiangyu Han ◽  
Yiheng Yang ◽  
Junwu Zhou

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Quentin Meteier ◽  
Emmanuel De Salis ◽  
Marine Capallera ◽  
Marino Widmer ◽  
Leonardo Angelini ◽  

In future conditionally automated driving, drivers may be asked to take over control of the car while it is driving autonomously. Performing a non-driving-related task could degrade their takeover performance, which could be detected by continuous assessment of drivers' mental load. In this regard, three physiological signals from 80 subjects were collected during 1 h of conditionally automated driving in a simulator. Participants were asked to perform a non-driving cognitive task (N-back) for 90 s, 15 times during driving. The modality and difficulty of the task were experimentally manipulated. The experiment yielded a dataset of drivers' physiological indicators during the task sequences, which was used to predict drivers' workload. This was done by classifying task difficulty (three classes) and regressing participants' reported level of subjective workload after each task (on a 0–20 scale). Classification of task modality was also studied. For each task, the effect of sensor fusion and task performance were studied. The implemented pipeline consisted of a repeated cross validation approach with grid search applied to three machine learning algorithms. The results showed that three different levels of mental load could be classified with a f1-score of 0.713 using the skin conductance and respiration signals as inputs of a random forest classifier. The best regression model predicted the subjective level of workload with a mean absolute error of 3.195 using the three signals. The accuracy of the model increased with participants' task performance. However, classification of task modality (visual or auditory) was not successful. Some physiological indicators such as estimates of respiratory sinus arrhythmia, respiratory amplitude, and temporal indices of heart rate variability were found to be relevant measures of mental workload. Their use should be preferred for ongoing assessment of driver workload in automated driving.

2022 ◽  
Daofei Li ◽  
Linhui Chen

<p>Motion sickness is very common in road transport. To guarantee ride comfort and user experience, there is an urgent need for effective solutions to motion sickness mitigation in semi- and fully-automated vehicles. Considering both effectiveness and user-friendliness, a vibration cue system is proposed to inform passengers of the upcoming vehicle movement through tactile stimulation. By integrating the motion planning results from automated driving algorithms, the vibration cueing timing and patterns are optimized with the theory of motion anticipation. Using a cushion-based prototype of vibration cue system, 20 participants were invited to evaluate this solution in two conditions of driving simulator experiments. Results show that with the proposed vibration cue system, it could also help participants to comprehend the cues and to generate motion anticipation. The participants’ motion sickness degrees were significantly lowered. This research may serve as one foundation for the detailed system development in practical applications.</p><p>(This article has been accepted for publication in <i>Ergonomics</i>, published by Taylor & Francis.)</p><br>

Carlos Gómez-Huélamo ◽  
Javier Del Egido ◽  
Luis Miguel Bergasa ◽  
Rafael Barea ◽  
Elena López-Guillén ◽  

AbstractAutonomous Driving (AD) promises an efficient, comfortable and safe driving experience. Nevertheless, fatalities involving vehicles equipped with Automated Driving Systems (ADSs) are on the rise, especially those related to the perception module of the vehicle. This paper presents a real-time and power-efficient 3D Multi-Object Detection and Tracking (DAMOT) method proposed for Intelligent Vehicles (IV) applications, allowing the vehicle to track $$360^{\circ }$$ 360 ∘ surrounding objects as a preliminary stage to perform trajectory forecasting to prevent collisions and anticipate the ego-vehicle to future traffic scenarios. First, we present our DAMOT pipeline based on Fast Encoders for object detection and a combination of a 3D Kalman Filter and Hungarian Algorithm, used for state estimation and data association respectively. We extend our previous work ellaborating a preliminary version of sensor fusion based DAMOT, merging the extracted features by a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) using camera information for long-term re-identification and obstacles retrieved by the 3D object detector. Both pipelines exploit the concepts of lightweight Linux containers using the Docker approach to provide the system with isolation, flexibility and portability, and standard communication in robotics using the Robot Operating System (ROS). Second, both pipelines are validated using the recently proposed KITTI-3DMOT evaluation tool that demonstrates the full strength of 3D localization and tracking of a MOT system. Finally, the most efficient architecture is validated in some interesting traffic scenarios implemented in the CARLA (Car Learning to Act) open-source driving simulator and in our real-world autonomous electric car using the NVIDIA AGX Xavier, an AI embedded system for autonomous machines, studying its performance in a controlled but realistic urban environment with real-time execution (results).

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 483
Jianguo Gong ◽  
Xiucheng Guo ◽  
Lingfeng Pan ◽  
Cong Qi ◽  
Ying Wang

Research on the influence of age on various automated driving conditions will contribute to an understanding of driving behavior characteristics and the development of specific automated driving systems. This study aims to analyze the relationship between age and takeover behavior in automated driving, where 16 test conditions were taken into consideration, including two driving tasks, two warning times and four driving scenarios. Forty-two drivers in Beijing, China in 2020 were recruited to participate in a static driving simulator with Level 3 (L3) conditional automation to obtain detailed test information of the recorded takeover time, mean speed and mean lateral offset. An ANOVA test was proposed to examine the significance among different age groups and conditions. The results confirmed that reaction time increased significantly with age and the driving stability of the older group was worse than the young and middle groups. It was also indicated that the older group could not adapt to complex tasks well when driving due to their limited cognitive driving ability. Additionally, the higher urgency of a scenario explained the variance in the takeover quality. According to the obtained influencing mechanisms, policy implications for the development of vehicle automation, considering the various driving behaviors of drivers, were put forward, so as to correctly identify the high-risk driving conditions in different age groups. For further research, on-road validation will be necessary in order to check for driving simulation-related effects.

2022 ◽  
Mathias Mitteregger ◽  
Emilia M. Bruck ◽  
Aggelos Soteropoulos ◽  
Andrea Stickler ◽  
Martin Berger ◽  

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