machine learning algorithms
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2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Healthcare and medicine are key areas where machine learning algorithms are widely used. The medical decision support systems thus created are accurate enough, however, they suffer from the lack of transparency in decision making and shows a black box behavior. However, transparency and trust are significant in the field of health and medicine and hence, a black box system is sub optimal in terms of widespread applicability and reach. Hence, the explainablility of the research make the system reliable and understandable, thereby enhancing its social acceptability. The presented work explores a thyroid disease diagnosis system. SHAP, a popular method based on coalition game theory is used for interpretability of results. The work explains the system behavior both locally and globally and shows how machine leaning can be used to ascertain the causality of the disease and support doctors to suggest the most effective treatment of the disease. The work not only demonstrates the results of machine learning algorithms but also explains related feature importance and model insights.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (3) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Cardiotocography (CTG) is the widely used cost-effective, non-invasive technique to monitor the fetal heart and mother’s uterine contraction pressure to assess the wellbeing of the fetus. The most important parameters of fetal heart is the baseline upon which the other parameters viz. acceleration, deceleration and variability depend. Accurate classification of the baseline into either normal, bradycardia or tachycardia is thus important to assess the fetal-health. Since visual estimation has its limitations, the authors use various Machine Learning Algorithms to classify the baseline. 110 CTG traces from CTU-UHB dataset, were divided into three subsets using stratified sampling to ensure that the sample is the accurate depiction of the population. The results were analyzed using various statistical methods and compared with the visual estimation by three obstetricians. FURIA provided greatest accuracy of 98.11%. From the analysis of Bland-Altman Plot FURIA was also found to have best agreement with physicians’ estimation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 34 (3) ◽  
pp. 1-13
Jianzu Wu ◽  
Kunxin Zhang

This article examines the policy implementation literature using a text mining technique, known as a structural topic model (STM), to conduct a comprehensive analysis of 547 articles published by 11 major journals between 2000 and 2019. The subject analyzed was the policy implementation literature, and the search included titles, keywords, and abstracts. The application of the STM not only allowed us to provide snapshots of different research topics and variation across covariates but also let us track the evolution and influence of topics over time. Examining the policy implementation literature has contributed to the understanding of public policy areas; the authors also provided recommendations for future studies in policy implementation.

Riyadh Rahef Nuiaa ◽  
Selvakumar Manickam ◽  
Ali Hakem Alsaeedi ◽  
Esraa Saleh Alomari

Cyberattacks have grown steadily over the last few years. The distributed reflection denial of service (DRDoS) attack has been rising, a new variant of distributed denial of service (DDoS) attack. DRDoS attacks are more difficult to mitigate due to the dynamics and the attack strategy of this type of attack. The number of features influences the performance of the intrusion detection system by investigating the behavior of traffic. Therefore, the feature selection model improves the accuracy of the detection mechanism also reduces the time of detection by reducing the number of features. The proposed model aims to detect DRDoS attacks based on the feature selection model, and this model is called a proactive feature selection model proactive feature selection (PFS). This model uses a nature-inspired optimization algorithm for the feature subset selection. Three machine learning algorithms, i.e., k-nearest neighbor (KNN), random forest (RF), and support vector machine (SVM), were evaluated as the potential classifier for evaluating the selected features. We have used the CICDDoS2019 dataset for evaluation purposes. The performance of each classifier is compared to previous models. The results indicate that the suggested model works better than the current approaches providing a higher detection rate (DR), a low false-positive rate (FPR), <span>and increased accuracy detection (DA).</span> The PFS model shows better accuracy to detect DRDoS attacks with 89.59%.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 1-22
Chang Liu ◽  
Jie Yan ◽  
Feiyue Guo ◽  
Min Guo

Although machine learning (ML) algorithms have been widely used in forecasting the trend of stock market indices, they failed to consider the following crucial aspects for market forecasting: (1) that investors’ emotions and attitudes toward future market trends have material impacts on market trend forecasting (2) the length of past market data should be dynamically adjusted according to the market status and (3) the transition of market statutes should be considered when forecasting market trends. In this study, we proposed an innovative ML method to forecast China's stock market trends by addressing the three issues above. Specifically, sentimental factors (see Appendix [1] for full trans) were first collected to measure investors’ emotions and attitudes. Then, a non-stationary Markov chain (NMC) model was used to capture dynamic transitions of market statutes. We choose the state-of-the-art (SOTA) method, namely, Bidirectional Encoder Representations from Transformers ( BERT ), to predict the state of the market at time t , and a long short-term memory ( LSTM ) model was used to estimate the varying length of past market data in market trend prediction, where the input of LSTM (the state of the market at time t ) was the output of BERT and probabilities for opening and closing of the gates in the LSTM model were based on outputs of the NMC model. Finally, the optimum parameters of the proposed algorithm were calculated using a reinforced learning-based deep Q-Network. Compared to existing forecasting methods, the proposed algorithm achieves better results with a forecasting accuracy of 61.77%, annualized return of 29.25%, and maximum losses of −8.29%. Furthermore, the proposed model achieved the lowest forecasting error: mean square error (0.095), root mean square error (0.0739), mean absolute error (0.104), and mean absolute percent error (15.1%). As a result, the proposed market forecasting model can help investors obtain more accurate market forecast information.

2022 ◽  
Vol 30 (3) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Collecting and mining customer consumption data are crucial to assess customer value and predict customer consumption behaviors. This paper proposes a new procedure, based on an improved Random Forest Model by: adding a new indicator, joining the RFMS-based method to a K-means algorithm with the Entropy Weight Method applied in computing the customer value index, classifying customers to different categories, and then constructing a consumption forecasting model whose RMSE is the smallest in all kinds of data mining models. The results show that identifying customers by this improved RMF model and customer value index facilitates customer profiling, and forecasting customer consumption enables the development of more precise marketing strategies.

Handwritten documents in an Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system can come from different sources and usually have different designs, sizes, and subjects (i.e. bills, checks, invoices, etc.). Given these documents were filled manually, they have to be inspected to detect various kinds of issues (missing signature or stamp, missing name, etc.) before being saved in the ERP system or processed by an OCR engine. In this paper, the authors present a transfer learning approach to detect issues in scanned handwritten documents, using an award-winning deep convolutional neural network (InceptionV3) and different machine learning algorithms such as Logistic Regression (LR), Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Naive Bayes (NB). The experiment shows that the combination of InceptionV3 and LR got an accuracy of 91.8% for missing stamp detection. This can allow using this approach in an ERP system as an automatic verification procedure in a document processing flow.

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