caspian sea
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Minerals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 87
Nina Kozina ◽  
Liudmila Reykhard ◽  
Olga Dara

This paper presents the results of complex lithological, mineralogical, and geochemical studies of bottom sediments of deep-water basins of the Caspian Sea (Derbent and South Caspian Basins) in areas contaminated by hydrogen sulfide. In the course of complex studies, numerous manifestations of authigenic mineral formation associated with the stage of early diagenesis have been established. Authigenic minerals belonging to the groups of sulfates (gypsum, barite), chlorides (halite), carbonates (calcite, low Mg-calcite; kutnohorite), and sulfides (framboidal pyrite), as well as their forms and composition, have been identified by a complex of analytical methods (X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS); atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS); coulometric titration (CT)); the nature of their distribution in bottom sediments has been assessed. Carbonates and sulfates are predominant authigenic minerals in the deep-water basins of the Caspian Sea. As a part of the study, differences have been established in the composition and distribution of associations of authigenic minerals in the bottom sediments in the deep-water basins. These are mineral associations characteristic of the uppermost part of the sediments (interval 0–3 cm) and underlying sediments. In the Derbent Basin, in sediments of the interval 3–46 cm, an authigenic association is formed from gypsum, calcite, magnesian calcite, siderite, and framboidal pyrite. An association of such authigenic minerals as gypsum and calcite is formed in sediments of the 0–3 cm interval. In the South Caspian Basin, in sediments of the interval 3–35 cm, an association of such authigenic minerals as gypsum, halite, calcite, magnesian calcite, and framboidal pyrite is formed. The association of such authigenic minerals as gypsum, halite, calcite, magnesian calcite, kutnohorite, and framboidal pyrite is characteristic of sediments of the 0–3 cm interval. We consider the aridity of the climate in the South Caspian region to be the main factor that determines the appearance of such differences in the uppermost layer of sediments of the basins. Judging by the change in the composition of authigenic associations, the aridity of the South Caspian increased sharply by the time of the accumulation of the upper layer of sediments (interval 0–3 cm). Taking into account lithological, mineralogical and geochemical data, the features of the processes of authigenic mineral formation in the deep-water basins of the Caspian Sea under conditions of hydrogen sulfide contamination have been determined. Analysis of the results obtained and published data on the conditions of sedimentation in the Caspian Sea showed that hydrogen sulfide contamination recorded in the bottom layer of the water column of the deep-water basins of the Caspian Sea may affect the formation of authigenic sulfides (framboidal pyrite), sulfates (gypsum), and carbonates (calcite and kutnohorite) associated with the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in reducing conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 37-46
T. S. Ershova ◽  
V. F. Zaitsev ◽  
V. A. Chaplygin ◽  
A. S. Khursanov

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 18-26
S. V. Vostokov ◽  
A. S. Vostokova ◽  
E. N. Lobachev ◽  
Rahnama Haratbar Reza ◽  
Abtahi Behrooz ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 8-17
V. B. Ushivtsev ◽  
M. L. Galaktionova ◽  
S. A. Kotenkov ◽  
T. A. Sinitsyna ◽  
G. A. Akhmedova ◽  

Mahdieh Arabzadeh Saheli ◽  
Kamran Lari ◽  
Gholamreza Salehi ◽  
Masoud Torabi Azad

2022 ◽  
pp. 222-236
Özlem Karadağ Albayrak ◽  
Başak Çelik

The East-West Middle Corridor (Middle Corridor) with the Caspian Transit, which starts from Turkey with the Baku Tbilisi Kars Railway line, reaches the Caucasus region. From here it travels over the Caspian Sea through Turkmenistan and Kazakhstan to Central Asia and China and is one of the most important components of historical silk road resuscitation project. With this study, the contribution of Baku Tbilisi Kars railway line and Kars Logistics Center, which is the European and Turkish gateway of the middle corridor, to the silk railway in terms of international leasing is explored.

Irina Victorovna Konopleva

The paper presents long-term data on catches, distribution and length dynamics of Russian sturgeon in the waters of the Caspian Sea for the summer-autumn periods in 2015-2020. When considering the catches in the different parts of the sea there is found their annual variability, which is especially noticeable in the shallow zone in the North Caspian (0.31-2.0 specimens/trawl) and in the Middle Caspian (0-1.31 specimens/trawl). In the course of determining the reasons for the interannual dynamics of catches there were revealed several decadal rises. The dependence of decadal catches on the temperature of the bottom water layer was analyzed. The highest rise in catches was observed in the first decade of September when the temperature of water lowered up to 20.0-15.0 °C. The increase was observed due to migrating individuals to the shallow zone of the Northern Caspian Sea from shallow waters. Despite the variability of catches, the localization of Russian sturgeon schooling in the northern and middle part of the sea during the summer-autumn periods of 2015-2020 has certain similar features and trends. Sturgeon species fed mainly on shallow banks and deep dumps, where the largest catches of sturgeon were recorded from 5.0 to 12.0 specimens/trawl. The absence of sturgeon at depths of up to 3.0 m isobath in the last five years is due to the water heating up to 27.6-28.8 °C. The decrease in the length of the Russian sturgeon observed in recent years is due to an increase in the proportion of youngsters (19.2-70.0%) against the background of a decrease in the adult population. It should be noted that from 2017 to 2019 there were not found the adult species in the catches by fishing nets, which indicates their continued re-moval from the population.

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