aquatic organisms
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2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 114
Author(s):  
Mattia Tomasoni ◽  
Giuseppe Esposito ◽  
Davide Mugetti ◽  
Paolo Pastorino ◽  
Nadia Stoppani ◽  
...  

The genus Vibrio currently contains 147 recognized species widely distributed, including pathogens for aquatic organisms. Vibrio infections in elasmobranchs are poorly reported, often with identifications as Vibrio sp. and without detailed diagnostic insights. The purpose of this paper is the description of the isolation and identification process of Vibrio spp. following a mortality event of Scyliorhinus canicula juvenile reared in an Italian public aquarium. Following investigations aimed at excluding the presence of different pathogens of marine fish species (parasites, bacteria, Betanodavirus), several colonies were isolated and subjected to species identification using the available diagnostic techniques (a biochemical test, MALDI-TOF MS, and biomolecular analysis). Discrepancies were observed among the methods; the limits of biochemistry as a unique tool for Vibrio species determination were detected through statistical analysis. The use of the rpoB gene, as a diagnostic tool, allowed the identification of the isolates as V. crassostreae and V. cyclotrophicus. Although the pathogenic role of these microorganisms in lesser-spotted dogfish juveniles has not been demonstrated, and the presence of further pathogens cannot be excluded, this study allowed the isolation of two Vibrio species in less-studied aquatic organisms, highlighting the weaknesses and strengths of the different diagnostic methods applied.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Riccardo F. Romersi ◽  
Sascha C. T. Nicklisch

An organism’s diet is a major route of exposure to both beneficial nutrients and toxic environmental chemicals and natural products. The uptake of dietary xenobiotics in the intestine is prevented by transporters of the Solute Carrier (SLC) and ATP Binding Cassette (ABC) family. Several environmental chemicals and natural toxins have been identified to induce expression of these defense transporters in fish and aquatic invertebrates, indicating that they are substrates and can be eliminated. However, certain environmental chemicals, termed Transporter-Interfering Chemicals or TICs, have recently been shown to bind to and inhibit fish and mammalian P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), thereby sensitizing cells to toxic chemical accumulation. If and to what extent other xenobiotic defense or nutrient uptake transporters can also be inhibited by dietary TICs is still unknown. To date, most chemical-transporter interaction studies in aquatic organisms have focused on ABC-type transporters, while molecular interactions of xenobiotics with SLC-type transporters are poorly understood. In this perspective, we summarize current advances in the identification, localization, and functional analysis of protective MXR transporters and nutrient uptake systems in the digestive system of fish and aquatic invertebrates. We collate the existing literature data on chemically induced transporter gene expression and summarize the molecular interactions of xenobiotics with these transport systems. Our review emphasizes the need for standardized assays in a broader panel of commercially important fish and seafood species to better evaluate the effects of TIC and other xenobiotic interactions with physiological substrates and MXR transporters across the aquatic ecosystem and predict possible transfer to humans through consumption.


Toxics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 31
Author(s):  
Maria Luisa Fernandez-Marcos

The presence of toxic substances is one of the major causes of degradation of soil quality. Wildfires, besides affecting various chemical, physical, and biological soil properties, produce a mixture of potentially toxic substances which can reach the soil and water bodies and cause harm to these media. This review intends to summarise the current knowledge on the generation by wildfires of potentially toxic substances, their effects on soil organisms, and other associated risks, addressing the effects of fire on metal mobilisation, the pyrolytic production of potentially toxic compounds, and the detoxifying effect of charcoal. Numerous studies ascertained inhibitory effects of ash on seed germination and seedling growth as well as its toxicity to soil and aquatic organisms. Abundant publications addressed the mobilisation of heavy metals and trace elements by fire, including analyses of total concentrations, speciation, availability, and risk of exportation to water bodies. Many publications studied the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and other organic pollutants in soils after fire, their composition, decline over time, the risk of contamination of surface and ground waters, and their toxicity to plants, soil, and water organisms. Finally, the review addresses the possible detoxifying role of charcoal in soils affected by fire.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sébastien M. J. Portalier ◽  
Gregor F. Fussmann ◽  
Michel Loreau ◽  
Mehdi Cherif

First derivations of the functional response were mechanistic, but subsequent uses of these functions tended to be phenomenological. Further understanding of the mechanisms underpinning predator-prey relationships might lead to novel insights into functional response in natural systems. Because recent consideration of the physical properties of the environment has improved our understanding of predator-prey interactions, we advocate the use of physics-based approaches for the derivation of the functional response from first principles. These physical factors affect the functional response by constraining the ability of both predators and prey to move according to their size. A physics-based derivation of the functional response should thus consider the movement of organisms in relation to their physical environment. One recent article presents a model along these criteria. As an initial validation of our claim, we use a slightly modified version of this model to derive the classical parameters of the functional response (i.e., attack rate and handling time) of aquatic organisms, as affected by body size, buoyancy, water density and viscosity. We compared the predictions to relevant data. Our model provided good fit for most parameters, but failed to predict handling time. Remarkably, this is the only parameter whose derivation did not rely on physical principles. Parameters in the model were not estimated from observational data. Hence, systematic discrepancies between predictions and real data point immediately to errors in the model. An added benefit to functional response derivation from physical principles is thus to provide easy ways to validate or falsify hypotheses about predator-prey relationships.


2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
pp. 37-46
Author(s):  
T. S. Ershova ◽  
V. F. Zaitsev ◽  
V. A. Chaplygin ◽  
A. S. Khursanov

Water ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 144
Author(s):  
Sara Vali ◽  
Nava Majidiyan ◽  
Ahmad Mohamadi Yalsuyi ◽  
Mohammad Forouhar Vajargah ◽  
Marko D. Prokić ◽  
...  

Nanoparticles (NPs) can display toxicological effects on aquatic organisms. This study investigates ecotoxicological effects of Ag-NPs on reproductive and blood parameters of adult common molly (Poecilia sphenops) and their larvae. During the LC50 96 h test, female fish were exposed to concentrations of 0, 5, 15, 25, 35, 45 and 60 mg L−1 of Ag-NPs, while larvae were exposed to 0, 3, 5, 10 and 15 mg L−1. Finally, we aim to evaluate the effects of 0, 5, 10 and 15 mg L−1 of Ag-NPs on parturition time, reproductive success and hematological parameters of the mature fish exposed to sub-lethal concentration during a 62-day period. We also evaluated the survival rate of larvae. The results show a positive correlation between mortality rate and Ag-NP concentration. Values for LC50 96 h in adult fish and larvae were 26.85 mg L−1 and 6.22 mg L−1, respectively. A lack of parturition and reproductive success were seen in fish that underwent chronic exposure to Ag-NPs (15 mg L−1). The results show that RBC, WBC and hematocrit were significantly decreased in fish exposed to Ag-NPs. In addition, the serum concentrations of total protein, albumin, cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly increased in fish submitted to Ag-NPs (concentrations of 5–15). In conclusion, submitting a fish to higher concentration than 10 mg L−1 has adverse effects on reproductive system and blood parameters.


Author(s):  
Laura B. McCalla ◽  
Bryn M. Phillips ◽  
Brian S. Anderson ◽  
Jennifer P. Voorhees ◽  
Katie Siegler ◽  
...  

AbstractThe Salinas Valley in Monterey County, California, USA, is a highly productive agricultural region. Irrigation runoff containing pesticides at concentrations toxic to aquatic organisms poses a threat to aquatic ecosystems within local watersheds. This study monitored the effectiveness of a constructed wetland treatment system with a granulated activated carbon (GAC) filter installation at reducing pesticide concentrations and associated toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia, Hyalella azteca, and Chironomus dilutus. The wetland was supplied with water pumped from an impaired agricultural and urban drainage. Across five monitoring trials, the integrated system’s average pesticide concentration reduction was 52%. The wetland channel and GAC filtration components individually provided significant treatment, and within each, pesticide solubility had a significant effect on changes in pesticide concentrations. The integrated treatment system also reduced nitrate by 61%, phosphate by 73%, and turbidity by 90%. Input water was significantly toxic to C. dubia and H. azteca in the first trial. Toxicity to C. dubia persisted throughout the system, whereas toxicity to H. azteca was removed by the channel, but there was residual toxicity post-GAC. The final trial had significant input toxicity to H. azteca and C. dilutus. The channel reduced toxicity to H. azteca and removed toxicity to C. dilutus. GAC filtration reduced H. azteca toxicity to an insignificant level. There was no input toxicity in the other three trials. The results demonstrate that a wetland treatment system coupled with GAC filtration can reduce pesticide concentrations, nutrients, suspended particles, and aquatic toxicity associated with agricultural runoff.


2022 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Pouran Makhdoumi ◽  
Hooshyar Hossini ◽  
Meghdad Pirsaheb

Abstract Today microplastics (MPs) have received worldwide attention as an emerging environmental pollution which is one of the four major global environmental threat and health hazard to human as well. Unfortunately, MPs have been founded in the all environments and media include air, water resources, sediments, and soil. It should not be forgotten MPs have also been detected in food and processing products like tuna. MPs can be ingested by marine organisms such as zooplankton, fish and birds. Accumulation and distribution of MPs by commercially important aquatic organisms is expected to lead to greater exposure risk for human populations with possible adverse effects over time. The aim of this work was to review the published literature regarding the contamination of commercial fish muscle for human consumption. Furthermore, a short revision of the environmental contamination and human health effects by MPs are included. We also estimated human daily intake considering the worldwide contamination of commercial fish muscle ranged from 0.016 items/g muscle of fish to 6.06 items/g muscle of fish. MPs have been found in 56.5% of the commercial fish samples analysed here. As fish is used in human food table across the word, they constitute a long-term exposure route for all humans and raise the concern about the potential public health risk.


Author(s):  
Larry B. Barber ◽  
Kaycee E. Faunce ◽  
David W. Bertolatus ◽  
Michelle L. Hladik ◽  
Jeramy R. Jasmann ◽  
...  

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