Aquatic Organisms
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2021 ◽  
Islam R. Ghoniem ◽  
Ashraf M. Elmarsafy ◽  
Mohamed A. Amer ◽  
Hassan A. El- Gammal ◽  
Mohamed M. Abo Aly ◽  

Abstract The use of pesticides in agriculture has become one of the basic necessities to meet the world's food requirements as a result of the continuous population increase. But sometimes the use of some of these pesticides in large quantities and in high concentrations poses a great danger to the environment and then to humans. Through weather factors, pesticides are transferred to the water and then harm aquatic organisms, which leads to a direct impact and harm to the fish wealth. Monitoring these compounds in the environment requires a large cost of time and money to ensure food safety. Therefore, a new method was used in this study in an attempt to get rid of these compounds in water. The silver vanadate nanoparticles (AgVO3) were synthesized using a novel method in an attempt to eliminate different groups of pesticides that had been detected in Egyptian agricultural crops and water. The effect of 0.1 g of AgVO3 nanoparticles were found on three compounds: chlorpyrifos, dimethoate and malathion. Where a concentration of these compounds, which is 0.5 mg / kg, was used and it was estimated using Exion HPLC coupled with Sciex Qtrap API 6500 + LC-MS/MS System. After 15 minutes of treatment with 0.1 g of AgVO3 nanoparticles, these compounds were undetectable on the device's chromatogram, which is regarded a short period in Affecting these compounds and changing their nature in an attempt to get rid of them. Determination of chlorpyrifos breakdown products by using mass scan of Qtrap API 6500 + LC-MS/MS System and Thermo Scientific Q Exactive Focus Orbitrap LC-MS/MS System was investigated. Supported AgVO3 NPs, according to the study, could be used in long-term environmental remediation because they can be used in aqueous solutions at room temperature without the need for additional stimulus such as UV light.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (3) ◽  
pp. 48-53
Yu. V. Belousova ◽  
V. L. Lozovsky

The purpose of the research is analyzing the seasonal dynamics for the number and the hemipopulation structure of the trematode Gynaecotyla adunca larvae in shrimps of the genus Palaemon Weber, 1795 and determining the dependence of their infection with the metacercariae G. adunca on the host size and the season of the year in the water area of Sevastopol.Materials and methods. Samples of aquatic organisms were collected monthly during 2012 in two different biotopes, the estuary of the Chernaya River and the Kazachya Bay. We examined a total of 2,445 specimens of the Hydrobia acuta mollusk, 200 specimens of the Palaemon elegans shrimp in the estuary of the Chernaya River, and 2,248 specimens of the H. acuta mollusks and 64 specimens of P. adsepsus in the water area of Kazachya Bay. Shrimps were caught with a 1 × 0.4 m seine with a 6–8 mm mesh. The mollusks were collected with a hand grab sampler with a sampling area of 0.04 m2. The mollusks and shrimps were classified in accordance with the World Register of Marine Species. All mollusk and shrimp tissues were examined by the compression method under an MBS-10 binocular microscope. Descriptive statistics was calculated using Statistica 6 for Windows.Results and discussion. We have found that the parthenita G. adunca is characterized by asynchronous emergence of secondary sporocyst that contain cercariae, while the metacercariae G. adunca hemipopulation is characterized by an overdispersed distribution, which indirectly indicates a low density of the host population and its constant migration. We analyzed seasonal dynamics of the found microfallid larvae population. The metacercariae G. adunca are characterized by one peak of infection with trematodes in summer.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (18) ◽  
pp. 8529
Judith S. Weis ◽  
Karl H. Palmquist

Environmental microplastics are gaining interest due to their ubiquity and the threat they pose to environmental and human health. Critical studies have revealed the abundance of microplastics in nature, while others have tested the impacts of these small plastics on organismal health in the laboratory. Yet, there is often a mismatch between these two areas of research, resulting in major discrepancies and an inability to interpret certain findings. Here, we focus on several main lines of inquiry. First, even though the majority of environmental microplastics are plastic microfibers from textiles, laboratory studies still largely use spherical microbeads. There are also inconsistencies between the measurements of microplastics in the environment as compared to the concentrations that tend to be used in experimental studies. Likewise, the period of exposure occurring in experimental studies and in the environment are vastly different. Lastly, although experimental studies often focus on a particular subset of toxic chemicals present on microplastics, textile microfibers carry other dyes and chemicals that are understudied. They also cause types of physical damage not associated with microspheres. This review will analyze the literature pertaining to these mismatches, focusing on aquatic organisms and model systems, and seek to inform a path forward for this burgeoning area of research.

2021 ◽  
Zhiyuan Meng ◽  
Zhichao Wang ◽  
xiaojun Chen ◽  
Yueyi Song ◽  
Miaomiao Teng ◽  

Abstract As a diamide insecticide, flubendiamide is widely used and has many adverse effects on environmental organisms. In this study, bioaccumulation and toxicity effects of flubendiamide in zebrafish (Danio rerio) were studied. Specifically, the results showed that the concentrations of flubendiamide increased in the early stage and achieved steady stages at 14 days and the bioconcentration factors (BCFs) of flubendiamide in zebrafish were 1.125 - 2.011. Furthermore, flubendiamide had no significant effects on the growth phenotypes of zebrafish. However, zebrafish hepatic somatic index (HSI) of zebrafish had changed significantly with exposure. Histopathological analysis showed that exposure to flubendiamide could cause structural damage to liver tissue of zebrafish. Further physiological and biochemical analysis showed that flubendiamide could significantly change the activity of CAT and the contents of MDA and GSH in liver of zebrafish. In particular, exposure to flubendiamide could also cause significant changes in the mRNA expression levels of cell apoptosis-related genes involving p53, puma, caspase-3, caspase-9, apaf-1 and bax in liver of zebrafish. In general, these results indicated that exposure to flubendiamide could induce liver damage by inducing oxidative stress and apoptosis in liver of zebrafish. The results of this study will help to further comprehensively evaluate the safety of flubendiamide to aquatic organisms.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (09) ◽  
pp. 303-319
Anto Thomas ◽  
Shanmugam Achiraman ◽  

Increase in carbon dioxide level is considered as a threat to all living organisms and in particular aquatic organisms are vulnerable. Although a number of studies were carried out to predict the effect of increased CO2 with marine organisms, fresh water fish were the least concerned ones. Therefore, the aim of this study was to study the effect of antioxidant enzymes in zebrafish exposed to acute concentration of CO2 (based on prediction for 2300). Three ranges of pH were selected below the range where no fatality was observed, 6.0 – 6.5, 5.5 – 6.0 and 5.0 – 5.5. Antioxidant enzyme analysis of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lipid peroxidation (LP), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was performed for the tissues, liver, gills and muscles. Although a significant decrease in SOD activity was observed in all three tissues, only a slight variation in CAT activity was found in all the tissues. MDA content which is an indicator of lipid peroxidation showed an increasing pattern in all the tissues. A slight increase in GR activity was found in all the tissues; however, a significant decrease in GPx activity was noted. Further, the histology of gills exposed to CO2 showed marked damage and injury including lamellar fusion and necrosis. Our study concludes that exposure to CO2 has led to oxidative stress which has resulted in cellular injury and damage

Water ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 2493
Łukasz Sikorski

Salinity limits the habitable living environment for aquatic organisms. Algae and crustaceans are widely used as bioindicators in freshwater environmental risk assessments. This study aimed to use biotests (Algaltoxkit and Daphtoxkit) to determine the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and crustaceans Daphnia magna. Standard biotests were extended to include NaCl effects on algal chlorophyll fluorescence and crustaceans swimming and heart rate. It was found that after 7 days, a 0.24 M of NaCl reduced the growth rate of the algae by 50% (EC50). A NaCl of 0.27 M inhibited the minimum (Fo), maximum (Fm) and variable (Fv) fluorescence by 50%, on average. The crustaceans also responded to NaCl. Those exposed to 0.19 M NaCl during 15 min swam slower by 50% and a 0.27 M immobilised three organisms (EC50). The crustacean immobilisation was less modified by NaCl than swimming. To determine the lethal effect in non-swimming organisms, the heart rate was examined. At 0.35 M of NaCl, all organisms were dead after 30 min, as their hearts did not beat. These studies suggest that physiological and behavioural features are sensitive indicators of the toxic effects of NaCl in algae and crustaceans, before morphological changes are observed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 10087
Andrzej Wałęga ◽  
Alban Kuriqi

Safeguarding optimal living conditions for aquatic organisms is one of the most important principles of sustainable water management [...]

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
Anja Bunge ◽  
Ulrike Kammann ◽  
Jörn Peter Scharsack

AbstractMicroplastic fibers are frequent contaminants of aquatic ecosystems. Early life stages of aquatic organisms are predicted to be especially vulnerable to microplastic pollution. We hypothesized that microplastic fibers in the water column might interfere with fertilization and embryonic development of fish. We tested this with an in vitro fertilization system with three-spined sticklebacks. Six egg clutches were divided and one half was fertilized and bread out in water with polyester fibers (PET fibers; mean diameter 9.7 ± 2.3 μm; mean length 245.6 ± 163.1 μm) at a concentration of 1 × 104 fibers/L while the other half served as control without fibers.Observation with a dissection microscope revealed that some polyester fibers stuck to the outside of the eggs in the fiber treatments. Yet, overall 67.4 ± 12.9% eggs were fertilized from which 97.2 ± 4.2% larvae hatched without any significant difference between treatments. Mortality and abnormal development of larvae was low and was not changed by microplastic fibers, as was the heart rate of developing embryos five days post fertilization.The present study illustrates that polyester fibers, even at concentrations three to four orders above levels reported from the environment, do not impair fertilization success, embryonic and early larval development of sticklebacks. Accordingly, concentrations of microplastic fibers currently observed in aquatic habitats do not appear to be harmful to early live stages of fish.

Svitlana Vasylyuk ◽  
Yurii Myagchenko ◽  
Andrii Brytan

For washing use substances that give water "alkaline" properties and definitely increase the pH and reduce the surface tension, specifically they increase the extraction of pollutants from tissues. Surfactants in these solutions, which enter the environment after washing, promote to the growth of blue-green algae. This leads to decrease in oxygen in water, which is necessary for aquatic organisms (fish, amphibians, etc.). We propose to find methods and devices that reduce the use of surfactants for washing by attracting catholytes instead of ordinary water.

2021 ◽  
Kyo Suwa ◽  
Chiho Takahashi ◽  
Yoshifumi Horie

Abstract We investigated the lethal toxicity of Shibukuro and Tama river water near the inflow of Tamagawa hot-spring water in Akita Prefecture, Japan. We first measured heavy metal concentrations in both rivers. We detected iron, arsenic, and aluminum; the concentrations of each tended to decrease from upstream to downstream. We next examined the influence of river water on zebrafish Danio rerio and water flea Daphnia magna. We observed lethal effects in both species, with Daphnia magna more sensitive to toxicity than Danio rerio. For both species, the toxic effects of river water decreased with increasing distance downstream from the inflow of hot-spring water. Our results show that the heavy metals discharged from Tamagawa hot spring have a negative effect on aquatic organisms.

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