Abstract Estuaries receive daily inputs of chemical elements which can impact the quality of water and sediment, as well as the health of biota. In addition to the sediment, bivalve mollusks have been used in the chemical monitoring of these systems. This study investigated the presence and contents of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in superficial sediment and in bivalves (Crassostrea gasar, C. rhizophorae and Mytella guyanensis) from estuaries in the south / extreme south of Bahia State, northeast Brazil. The samples were evaluated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES, Varian 710). Except for Cd, all other elements were found in the samples, being that Co was exclusive in the sediment. The estuaries equivalent to sampling stations #1 - Valença, #2 - Taperoá, #3 - Ilhéus and #4 - Belmonte showed levels of metals compatibles with those established by the Brazilian legislation, however, the #5 - Santa Cruz Cabrália, in addition to the presence of As, presented a high level of Pb and Cu in C. gasar, which was attributed to the impacts of nautical activities in that locality.
All landscapes are built on rock: from hard stone for building with, to the softest clay or sand. Each piece of rock is a storehouse of prehistorical information; even a simple pebble from the garden has its own complex tale to tell. Geology is the great detective science that can unlock these secrets. In this entertaining and eye-opening book, the authors take a deep dive – quite literally – into their home county of Essex. We are all living in an ice age, an ongoing event that has hugely affected Essex over the last 3 million years. Yet this county was born more than 500 million years ago. Our story begins when the land we know as Essex was part of a large continent close to the South Pole, tracing the geological processes that continue to shape the countryside around us. The form of the land, boulders on village greens, road cuttings, cliffs, stones in church walls – they can all bring geology to light in unexpected and fascinating ways. Aimed at a general readership with no scientific background, chapters progress from fundamentals to intricate details of geological investigations and cutting-edge research. Richly illustrated with photographs and colour diagrams, here the geology of a county is visualised and brought to life as never before, along with pertinent environmental insights in the light of climate change that is happening now.
Since BC, the construction of cities has been started in the Mongolian Plateau with the establishment of dynasties, but many were turned into ruins. However, the Tibetan Buddhist temples built after the 16th century, which are an indispensable element in the process of settling the Mongolians from nomadic life, have been relatively well preserved in Inner Mongolia. These temples have been thought to be the epitome of the Mongolian economy, culture, art, and construction technology. Therefore, it has a great significance to research them systematically. Interestingly, these temples in Mongolia were originated from Inner Mongolia, which is located on the south side of Mongolia. The architectural design of these temples has been primarily influenced by Chinese and Tibetan temple architecture, suggesting that the temples appear to be considered a vital sample for studying temple architecture in Mongolia or East Asia. So far, there is still no study systematically on temple architecture in Inner Mongolia. Therefore, this research aims to study the arrangement plan of Inner Mongolian Tibetan Buddhist temples, which is the most important factor to consider in the first stage of temple construction.
Aim of study: To analyze the structure of Puccinia hordei populations by virulence in southern Russia during 2017-2019. Area of study: South of Russia, the leading Russian region for barley production where barley leaf rust is an important foliar disease. Material and methods: Uredinial samples of P. hordei were collected at the production sites of winter barley in the south of Russia. Single uredinial isolates (total 95) were tested for virulence with 17 differentials with Rph resistance genes. Main results: No isolates found virulent to the host line with the Rph13 gene. There was a decrease in the number of fungal isolates virulent to the host lines with Rph5 and Rph7 genes. In 2017 and 2019, isolates containing a large number of virulence alleles (from 11 to 15) prevailed. In 2018, isolates with low (1-5) and medium (6-10) frequency of virulent alleles prevailed, as well as avirulent isolates. The values of the Nei index via diversity showed high similarity of the pathogen populations in 2017-2018 (N = 0.05) and minor differences in 2017-2019 and 2018-2019 (N = 0.13 and 0.16, respectively). The greatest frequency of virulence alleles in accordance with the Nei (Hs) index was noted for the 2018 population (Hs = 0.36). For the 2017 and 2019 populations, this indicator was average (Hs = 0.29 and 0.20, respectively). Research highlights: Analysis of genetics of the P. hopdei population is important for the strategy of varietal distribution in the region and development of rust-resistant cultivars.