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Author(s):  
Charlotte Cosemans ◽  
Nicolas Van Larebeke ◽  
Bram G Janssen ◽  
Dries S Martens ◽  
Willy Baeyens ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Carlos Izaias Sartorao Filho ◽  
Carlos Izaias Sartorao Neto ◽  
Ana Luisa Varrone Sartorao ◽  
Diogo Coutinho Terribile ◽  
Beatriz Balsimelli de Mello ◽  
...  

Background: Limited research has examined mobile phone-based platforms for survey recruitment, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. Our objective was to investigate the feasibility and representativeness of mobile phone-based advertisement during a preliminary study about COVID-19 vaccine hesitation in Brazil. Moreover, we evaluate whether the older population can be reached through mobile phone-based platforms of the survey. Methods: We conducted a study in December 2021 based on a preliminary survey about the COVID-19 vaccine hesitation in Assis, Brazil, Sao Paulo state. From a list of the adult population hesitant for the second dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, we sent a mobile phone-based advertisement inviting the participants to answer the survey for one week. The respondent's data were collected in a Google form platform. The comparison between the target population and the respondents was made using the Chi-squared test and the Welch's test, using a P-value of .05 as significative. Results: The response rate was 9.99% after one week. The mean age of the respondent group was 33.97 (SD 14.99) and 35.05 (SD 14.19) of the population, with a P-value of .192 and a Cohen's d coefficient of 0.0754, corresponding to a small effect size between groups. We demonstrate that the mobile phone-based survey is a feasible and representative strategy during the pandemics in Brazil. Moreover, the older population respondent was representative. Conclusion: We achieved a representative sample of respondents using the mobile phone-based survey in Brazil. Furthermore, it was representative in all sociodemographic and health characteristics assessed. Finally, these findings suggest the method is a highly feasible and economical means of recruiting for survey research.


2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (2) ◽  
pp. 970
Author(s):  
Bartosz Kamil Sobocki ◽  
Charbel A. Basset ◽  
Bożena Bruhn-Olszewska ◽  
Paweł Olszewski ◽  
Olga Szot ◽  
...  

Periodontitis is prevalent in half of the adult population and raises critical health concerns as it has been recently associated with an increased risk of cancer. While information about the topic remains somewhat scarce, a deeper understanding of the underlying mechanistic pathways promoting neoplasia in periodontitis patients is of fundamental importance. This manuscript presents the literature as well as a panel of tables and figures on the molecular mechanisms of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum, two main oral pathogens in periodontitis pathology, involved in instigating tumorigenesis. We also present evidence for potential links between the RANKL–RANK signaling axis as well as circulating cytokines/leukocytes and carcinogenesis. Due to the nonconclusive data associating periodontitis and cancer reported in the case and cohort studies, we examine clinical trials relevant to the topic and summarize their outcome.


2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 420
Author(s):  
Jean-Baptiste de Freminville ◽  
Laurence Amar

Hypertension (HTN) is the most frequent modifiable risk factor in the world, affecting almost 30 to 40% of the adult population in the world. Among hypertensive patients, 10 to 15% have so-called “secondary” HTN, which means HTN due to an identified cause. The most frequent secondary causes of HTN are renal arteries abnormalities (renovascular HTN), kidney disease, and endocrine HTN, which are primarily due to adrenal causes. Knowing how to detect and explore endocrine causes of hypertension is particularly interesting because some causes have a cure or a specific treatment available. Moreover, the delayed diagnosis of secondary HTN is a major cause of uncontrolled blood pressure. Therefore, screening and exploration of patients at risk for secondary HTN should be a serious concern for every physician seeing patients with HTN. Regarding endocrine causes of HTN, the most frequent is primary aldosteronism (PA), which also is the most frequent cause of secondary HTN and could represent 10% of all HTN patients. Cushing syndrome and pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL) are rarer (less than 0.5% of patients). In this review, among endocrine causes of HTN, we will mainly discuss explorations for PA and PPGL.


Author(s):  
Anja Kroke ◽  
Annemarie Schmidt ◽  
Anna M. Amini ◽  
Nicole Kalotai ◽  
Andreas Lehmann ◽  
...  

Abstract Purpose The present work aimed to delineate (i) a revised protocol according to recent methodological developments in evidence generation, to (ii) describe its interpretation, the assessment of the overall certainty of evidence and to (iii) outline an Evidence to Decision framework for deriving an evidence-based guideline on quantitative and qualitative aspects of dietary protein intake. Methods A methodological protocol to systematically investigate the association between dietary protein intake and several health outcomes and for deriving dietary protein intake recommendations for the primary prevention of various non-communicable diseases in the general adult population was developed. Results The developed methodological protocol relies on umbrella reviews including systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses. Systematic literature searches in three databases will be performed for each health-related outcome. The methodological quality of all selected systematic reviews will be evaluated using a modified version of AMSTAR 2, and the outcome-specific certainty of evidence for systematic reviews with or without meta-analysis will be assessed with NutriGrade. The general outline of the Evidence to Decision framework foresees that recommendations in the derived guideline will be given based on the overall certainty of evidence as well as on additional criteria such as sustainability. Conclusion The methodological protocol permits a systematic evaluation of published systematic reviews on dietary protein intake and its association with selected health-related outcomes. An Evidence to Decision framework will be the basis for the overall conclusions and the resulting recommendations for dietary protein intake.


2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 360-376
Author(s):  
Manik Chahal ◽  
Brian Thiessen ◽  
Caroline Mariano

Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults, and over half of patients with newly diagnosed GBM are over the age of 65. Management of glioblastoma in older patients includes maximal safe resection followed by either radiation, chemotherapy, or combined modality treatment. Despite recent advances in the treatment of older patients with GBM, survival is still only approximately 9 months compared to approximately 15 months for the general adult population, suggesting that further research is required to optimize management in the older population. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) has been shown to have a prognostic and predictive role in the management of older patients with other cancers, and domains of the CGA have demonstrated an association with outcomes in GBM in retrospective studies. Furthermore, the CGA and other geriatric assessment tools are now starting to be prospectively investigated in older GBM populations. This review aims to outline current treatment strategies for older patients with GBM, explore the rationale for inclusion of geriatric assessment in GBM management, and highlight recent data investigating its implementation into practice.


Children ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 102
Author(s):  
Mirjam Močnik ◽  
Nataša Marčun Varda

Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the modern world. Their common denominator is atherosclerosis, a process beginning in childhood. In pediatrics, the aim of preventive measures is to recognize children and adolescents at risk for accelerated atherosclerosis and possible premature cardiovascular events in adulthood. Several diagnostic procedures and biomarkers are available for cardiovascular risk assessment in adults. However, reliable markers in pediatrics are still insufficiently studied. In this contribution, we discuss five potential biomarkers of particular interest: kidney injury molecule-1, salusin-α and -β, uromodulin, and adropin. Studies regarding the pediatric population are scarce, but they support the evidence from studies in the adult population. These markers might entail both a prognostic and a therapeutic interest.


2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yiting Liu ◽  
Wei Wang

Abstract Background Lipid accumulation product (LAP) and cardiometabolic index (CMI) are two novel obesity-related indexes associated with enhancing metabolic disease (MD) risk. Current evidences suggest that the differences in sex hormones and regional fat distribution in both sexes are directly correlated with MD and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) risk. Hence, NAFLD incidences reflect sex differences. Herein, we examined the accuracy of LAP and CMI in diagnosing NAFLD in both sexes. Methods Overall, 14,407 subjects, who underwent health check-up in the northeastern China, were enrolled in this study, and their corresponding LAP and CMI were calculated. Abdominal ultrasonography was employed for NAFLD diagnosis. Multivariate analyses were analyzed potential correlations between LAP and/or CMI and NAFLD. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were evaluated. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses was executed for the exploration of the diagnostic accuracies. Areas under the curves (AUCs) with 95%CIs were calculated. Results NAFLD prevalence increased with elevated quartiles of LAP and CMI in both sexes. In multivariate logistic regression analyses, LAP and CM expressed as continuous variables or quartiles, significantly correlated with NAFLD. The ORs for the top versus bottom quartile of LAP and CMI for NAFLD were 13.183 (95%CI = 8.512–20.417) and 8.662 (95%CI = 6.371–11.778) in women and 7.544 (95%CI = 5.748–9.902) and 5.400 (95%CI = 4.297–6.786) in men. LAP and CMI exhibited larger AUCs, compared to other obesity-related indexes in terms of discriminating NAFLD. The AUCs of LAP and CMI were 0.860 (95%CI = 0.852–0.867) and 0.833 (95%CI = 0.825–0.842) in women and 0.816 (95%CI = 0.806–0.825) and 0.779 (95%CI = 0.769–0.789) in men. Conclusions LAP and CMI are convenient indexes for the screening and quantification of NAFLD within a Chinese adult population. Their associations with NAFLD are substantially greater in women than men.


2022 ◽  
pp. 00462-2021
Author(s):  
Heidi Andersén ◽  
Pinja Ilmarinen ◽  
Jasmin Honkamäki ◽  
Leena E Tuomisto ◽  
Hanna Hisinger-Mölkänen ◽  
...  

BackgroundNonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) may exacerbate respiratory symptoms. A recent EAACI position paper recommended the use of an acronym, N-ERD (NSAID-exacerbated respiratory disease), for this hypersensitivity associated with asthma or chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with or without nasal polyposis. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of N-ERD and identify factors associated with N-ERD.MethodsIn 2016, a cross-sectional questionnaire survey of a random adult population of 16 000 subjects aged 20–69 years was performed in Helsinki and Western Finland. The response rate was 51.5%.ResultsThe prevalence was 1.4% for N-ERD, and 0.7% for AERD. The prevalence of N-ERD was 6.9% among subjects with asthma and 2.7% among subjects with rhinitis.The risk factors for N-ERD were older age, family history of asthma or allergic rhinitis, long-term smoking and exposure to environmental pollutants. Asthmatic subjects with N-ERD had a higher risk of respiratory symptoms, severe hypersensitivity reactions and hospitalisations than asthmatic subjects without N-ERD. The sub-phenotype of N-ERD with asthma was most symptomatic. Subjects with rhinitis associated with N-ERD, which would not be included in AERD, had the least symptoms.ConclusionWe conclude that the prevalence of N-ERD was 1.4% in a representative Finnish adult population sample. Older age, family history of asthma or allergic rhinitis, cumulative exposure to tobacco smoke, secondhand smoke, and occupational exposures increased odds of N-ERD. N-ERD was associated with significant morbidity.


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