Hydraulic fracturing (HF) is an effective technology to prevent and control coal dynamic disaster. The process of coal hydraulic fracturing (HF) induces a large number of microseismic/acoustic emission (MS/AE) waveforms. Understanding the characteristic of AE waveforms’ parameters is essential for evaluating the fracturing effect and optimizing the HF strategy in coal formation. In this study, laboratory hydraulic fracturing under true triaxial stress was performed on a cubic coal sample combined with AE monitoring. The injection pressure curve and temporal variation of AE waveforms’ parameters in different stages were analyzed in detail. The experimental results show that the characteristics of the AE waveforms’ parameters well reflect the HF growth behavior in coal. The majority of AE waveforms’ dominant frequency is distributed between 145 and 160 kHz during HF. The sharp decrease of the injection pressure curve and the sharp increase of the AE waveforms’ amplitude show that the fracture already runs through the coal sample during the initial fracture stage. The “trapezoidal” rise pattern of cumulative energy and most AE waveforms with low amplitude may indicate the stage of liquid storage space expansion. The largest proportion of AE waveforms’ energy and higher overall level of AE waveforms’ amplitude occur during the secondary fracture stage, which indicates the most severe degree of coal fracture and complex activity of internal fracture. The phenomenon shows the difference in fracture mechanism between the initial and secondary fracture stage. We propose a window-number index of AE waveforms for better response to hydraulic fracture, which can improve the accuracy of the HF process division.
The Qingchengzi orefield is an important polymetallic ore concentration zone in the northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). The region has significant metallogenic potential for deep mining. Many areas with gold mineralization have been found in the shallow area of Taoyuan–Xiaotongjiapuzi–Linjiasandaogou in the east of the Qingchengzi orefield. To assess the distribution of mineralization levels, we carried out deep exploration using the transient electromagnetic method (TEM). A superconductive quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer and a conventional induction coil were used for field data acquisition. The SQUID data inversion results reflect the bottom interface of the high-conductivity area, the fold state of the underlying dolomite marble stratum, and the deep structural characteristics of the syncline. Secondary crumples appear in the inversion results of the southern segment of TEM, which is inferred as a favorable area for deep gold mineralization. Negative values appear in the SQUID data of some stations, to varying degrees. This induced polarization phenomenon may be related to deep gold mineralization.
Significant volumes of rhyolites and granites of the Pliocene-Pleistocene age are exposed in the collision zone of the Greater Caucasus, Russia. The volcanic history of the region includes ignimbrites and lavas associated with the Chegem caldera (2.9 Ma) and Elbrus volcano (1.98 and 0.7 Ma) and rhyolitic necks and granites in Tyrnyauz (1.98 Ma). They are characterized by a similar bulk and mineral composition and close ratios of incompatible elements, which indicates their related origin. The 1.98 Ma Elbrus ignimbrites, compared to the 2.9 Ma Chegem ignimbrites, have elevated concentrations of both compatible (Cr, Sr, Ca, Ni) and incompatible elements (Cs, Rb, U). We argue that the Elbrus ignimbrites were produced from magma geochemically similar to Chegem rhyolites through fractionation crystallization coupled with the assimilation of crustal material. The 1.98 Ma Eldjuta granites of Tyrnyauz and early ignimbrites of the Elbrus region (1.98 Ma) are temporally coeval, similar mineralogically, and have comparable major and trace element composition, which indicates that the Elbrus ignimbrites probably erupted from the area of modern Tyrnyauz; the Eldjurta granite could represent a plutonic reservoir that fed this eruption. Late ignimbrites of Elbrus (0.7 Ma) and subsequent lavas demonstrate progressively more mafic mineral assemblage and bulk rock composition in comparison with rhyolites. This indicates their origin in response to the mixing of rhyolites with magmas of a more basic composition at the late stage of magma system development. The composition of these basic magmas may be close to the basaltic trachyandesite, the flows exposed along the periphery of the Elbrus volcano. All studied young volcanic rocks of the Greater Caucasus are characterized by depletion in HSFE and enrichment in LILE, Li, and Pb, which emphasizes the close relationship of young silicic magmatism with magmas of suprasubduction geochemical affinity. An important geochemical feature is the enrichment of U up to 8 ppm and Th up to 35 ppm. The trace element composition of the rocks indicates that the original rhyolitic magma of Chegem ignimbrites caldera was formed at >80%–90% fractionation of calc-alkaline arc basalts with increased alkalinity. This observation, in addition to published data for isotopic composition (O-Hf-Sr) of the same units, shows that the crustal isotopic signatures of silicic volcanics may arise due to the subduction-induced fertilization of peridotites producing parental basaltic magmas before a delamination episode reactivated the melting of the former mantle and the lower crust.
In this study, the zonality method has been used to separate geochemical anomalies and to calculate erosional levels in the regional scale for porphyry-Cu deposit, Abrisham-Rud (Semnan province, East of Iran). In geochemical maps of multiplicative haloes, the co-existence of both the supra-ore elements and sub-ore elements local maxima implied blind mineralization in the northwest of the study area. Moreover, considering the calculated zonality indices and two previously presented geochemical models, E and NW of the study have been introduced as ZDM and BM, respectively. For comparison, the geological layer has been created by combining rock units, faults, and alterations utilizing the K-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm. The rock units and faults have been identified from the geological map; moreover, alterations have been detected by using remote sensing and ASTER images. In the geological layer map related to E of the study area, many parts have been detected as high potential areas; in addition, both geochemical and geological layer maps only confirmed each other at the south of this area and suggested this part as high potential mineralization. Therefore, high potential areas in the geological layer map could be related to the mineralization or not. Due to the incapability of the geological layer in identifying erosional levels, mineralogy investigation could be used to recognize this level; however, because of the high cost, mineralogy is not recommended for application on a regional scale. The findings demonstrated that the zonality method has successfully distinguished geochemical anomalies including BM and ZDM without dependent on alteration and was able to predict erosional levels. Therefore, this method is more powerful than the geological layer.
Manganese (Mn) is a major element in various aqueous and soil environments that is sometimes highly concentrated in mine water and other mineral processing wastewater. In this study, we investigated Mn removal from alkaline mine water (pH > 9) with an Mn-coated silica sand packed into a pilot-scale column reactor and examined the specific reaction mechanism using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis and geochemical kinetic modeling. The kinetic effect of dissolved Mn(II) removal by birnessite (δ-Mn(IV)O2) at pH 6 and 8 was evaluated at different Mn(II)/Mn(IV) molar ratios of 0.1–10. Our results confirmed the positive effect of the presence of δ-MnO2 on the short-term removal (60 min) of dissolved Mn. XANES analysis results revealed that δ-MnO2 was more abundant than Mn(III)OOH in the reactor, which may have accumulated during a long-term reaction (4 months) after the reactor was turned on. A gradual decrease in dissolved Mn(II) concentration with depth was observed in the reactor, and comparison with the kinetic modeling result confirmed that δ-MnO2 interaction was the dominant Mn removal mechanism. Our results show that δ-MnO2 contents could play a significant role in controlling Mn removability from mine water in the reactor.
The crystal structures of newly found minerals are routinely determined using single-crystal techniques. However, many rare minerals usually form micrometer-sized aggregates that are difficult to study with conventional structural methods. This is the case for numerous platinum-group minerals (PGMs) such as, for instance, zaccariniite (RhNiAs), the crystal structure of which was first obtained by studying synthetic samples. The aim of the present work is to explore the usefulness of USPEX, a powerful crystal structure prediction method, as an alternative means of determining the crystal structure of minerals such as zaccariniite, with a relatively simple crystal structure and chemical formula. We show that fixed composition USPEX searches with a variable number of formula units, using the ideal formula of the mineral as the only starting point, successfully predict the tetragonal structure of a mineral. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations can then be performed in order to more tightly relax the structure of the mineral and calculate different fundamental properties, such as the frequency of zone-center Raman-active phonons, or even their pressure behavior. These theoretical data can be subsequently compared to experimental results, which, in the case of newly found minerals, would allow one to confirm the correctness of the crystal structure predicted by the USPEX code.
In this study, siliceous nodules from the world-famous Myrtos beach, as well as from Avithos beach, in the western flanks of Kefalonia Island in Greece are examined by means of petrographical, mineralogical, geochemical and micropaleontological methods. The objectives of this study are to characterize the textural and compositional features of the nodules, with the aim to provide an initial interpretation of their origin and their diagenetic evolution. The studied siliceous nodules are hosted within Lower Cretaceous thin-bedded limestones at Myrtos and Upper Eocene limestones at Avithos. Nodules from both areas display a characteristic concentric texture at a macroscopic and microscopic scale. They both have a dense fine-grained siliceous sedimentary fabric, composed mainly of microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline quartz and moganite with common residual calcite in the case of Avithos. These results, and in particular the shape of the nodules, along the textural and compositional characteristics, indicate different conditions of formation in the two localities, both during the early epigenetic stages, as well as later during the diagenetic processes. Myrtos nodules originated from Si-precursors deposited in a pelagic environment, going through intense Si-replacement. Avithos nodules were deposited in a more proximal environment, being influenced by a less intense silicification. Nevertheless, the higher degree of recrystallization of Avithos samples indicates a syn- or post-diagenetic tectonic activity that resulted in the circulation of geothermal fluids. The conclusions drawn from this work demonstrate the usefulness of thorough studies of siliceous nodules in order to get a more comprehensive understanding of the initial depositional conditions, as well as diagenetic pathways and processes.
Flotation wastes are becoming a valuable secondary raw material and source of many metals and semimetals worldwide with the possibilities of industrial recycling. The flotation tailings contain oxide and sulfide minerals that have not been sufficiently stabilized and form acidic mine waters, which in turn contaminate groundwater, rivers, and reservoi6sediments. An effective way to recycle these mine wastes is to recover the metals through leaching. While the focus is on acid bioleaching by iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, alkaline leaching, and the removal of iron-containing surface coatings on sulfide minerals contribute significantly to the overall environmental efficiency of leaching. For this study, static and percolate bioleaching of copper from flotation waste at the Bor copper mine in Serbia was investigated in alkaline and then acidic environments. The aim of the study was to verify the effect of alkaline pH and nutrient stimulation on the bioleaching process and element extraction. A sample was taken from a mine waste site, which was characterized by XRF analyses. The concentration of leached copper was increased when copper oxide minerals dissolved during alkaline bioleaching. The highest copper yield during alkaline bioleaching was achieved after 9 days and reached 67%. The addition of nutrients in acidic medium enhanced the degradation of sulfide minerals and increased Cu recovery to 74%, while Fe and Ag recoveries were not significantly affected. Combined bioleaching with alkaline media and iron- and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria in acidic media should be a good reference for ecological Cu recovery from copper oxide and sulfide wastes.
The Ab-Bid deposit, located in the Tabas-Posht e Badam metallogenic belt (TPMB) in Central Iran, is the largest Pb-Zn (±Cu) deposit in the Behadad-Kuhbanan mining district. Sulfide mineralization in the Ab-Bid deposit formed in Middle Triassic carbonate rocks and contains galena and sphalerite with minor pyrite, chalcopyrite, chalcocite, and barite. Silicification and dolomitization are the main wall-rock alteration styles. Structural and textural observations indicate that the mineralization occurs as fault fills with coarse-textured, brecciated, and replacement sulfides deposited in a bookshelf structure. The Ab-Bid ore minerals precipitated from high temperature (≈180–200 °C) basinal brines within the dolomitized and silicified carbonates. The sulfur isotope values of ore sulfides suggest a predominant thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) process, and the sulfur source was probably Triassic-Jurassic seawater sulfate. Given the current evidence, mineralization at Ab-Bid resulted from focusing of heated, over-pressurized brines of modified basinal origin into an active fault system. The association of the sulfide mineralization with intensely altered wall rock represents a typical example of such features in the Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) metallogenic domain of the TPMB. According to the structural data, the critical ore control is a bookshelf structure having mineralized dextral strike-slip faults in the northern part of the Ab-Bid reverse fault, which seems to be part of a sinistral brittle shear zone. Structural relationships also indicate that the strata-bound, fault-controlled Ab-Bid deposit was formed after the Middle Jurassic, and its formation may be related to compressive and deformation stages of the Mid-Cimmerian in the Middle Jurassic to Laramide orogenic cycle in the Late Cretaceous-Tertiary.
Recycling of tailings in the form of cemented paste backfill (CPB) is a widely adopted practice in the mining industry. Environmental performance is an important design criterion of CPB structures. This environmental performance of CPB is strongly influenced by its saturated hydraulic conductivity (permeability). Superplasticizers are usually added to improve flowability, but there is a limited understanding of their influence on the hydraulic properties of the CPB. This paper presents new experimental results on the variations of the hydraulic conductivity of CPB containing polycarboxylate-based superplasticizer with different compositions and curing conditions. It is found that the hydraulic conductivity of the CPB decreases with the addition of superplasticizer, which is beneficial to its environmental performance. The reduction is largely attributable to the influence of the ether-based superplasticizer on particles mobility and cement hydration. Moreover, both curing temperature and time have correlations with the hydraulic conductivity of CPB containing superplasticizer. In addition, the presence of sulfate and partial replacement of PCI with blast furnace slag reduces the hydraulic conductivity. The variations are mainly due to the changes in the pore structure of the CPB. The new results discussed in this manuscript will contribute to the design of more environmental-friendly CPBs, which is essential for sustainable mining.