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Author(s):  
Pavel Aleksandrovich Balykin ◽  
Raisa Pavlovna Khodorevskaya

The paper presents the generalized materials on the current state of fisheries in the Northern part of the Caspian Sea (southern region of the Volga-Caspian fisheries basin). It is shown that catches in the North-Western and Tersk-Caspian subdistricts varied in the opposite way: an increase in production in one subdistrict was accompanied by a decrease in the other. The decreasing or increasing catches is due to semi-anadromous (roach, brim, zander, carp) and freshwaterfish species (cat-fish, pike-perch, small size ordinary fish). There have been found the significant relationships between the size of catches in the North-Western and Tersk-Caspian subdistricts with the annual runoff and the volume of spring flooding of the Volga river, which allows to conclude that fish resources are redistributed between these regions depending on the natural conditions of a particular year. In order to more fully develop the fish resources of the southern region of the Volga-Caspian fisheries basin, it is recommended to abandon the division of quotas into parts for the North-Western and Tersk-Caspian subdistricts and to allow the fishing organizations to work at the expense of the total allowable catch


Author(s):  
Alexander Borisovich Zakharov ◽  
Eduard Ivanovich Boznak

The article highlights the ichthyological studies carried out in the Sysola river basin (a second order tributary of the Severnaya Dvina river), where rainbow trout is reared in cages for commercial purposes in the waters of regulated tributaries. The forecast for trout naturalization seems to be poor due to the fact that trout of different ages enter the river system every year as a result of technological accidents. It has been found that, despite the numerous cases of trout occurring in the natural conditions during 40 years, in the basin of the Sysola river has not formed a self-reproducing population of rainbow trout, and cases of its by-catch are rare. The data on the climatic and ecological conditions of the region are given. It has been inferred that the main factors preventing the naturalization of trout in the water bodies of the region are unfavorable temperature and hydrological regimes during the spawning and early ontogenesis of fish. The short summer feeding period does not allow trout to prepare for successful long wintering, as evidenced by a sharp decrease in the growth rate of fish that have fallen into natural conditions, compared to fish grown in cages. Trout of cage origin obviously do not form stable groups capable of reproducing the species and do not pose a threat to the aboriginal fish population, including Atlantic salmon, whose spawning and a significant part of the life cycle take place on many rivers of the north-eastern European Russia, including the basins of the Severnaya Dvina and Pechora rivers


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (19) ◽  
pp. 8986
Author(s):  
Cuiping Kuang ◽  
Kuo Chen ◽  
Jie Wang ◽  
Yunlong Wu ◽  
Xu Liu ◽  
...  

The typhoon impact on an estuarine environment is complex and systematic. A three-dimensional hydrodynamic and salinity transport model with a high-resolution, unstructured mesh and a spatially varying bottom roughness, is applied to investigate the effects of a historical typhoon, Fongwong, which affected Shanghai, on the hydrodynamics and saline water intrusion in the North Branch (NB) of the Yangtze River Estuary (YRE). The model is well validated through observation data of the tidal level, current velocity and direction, and salinity. The numerical results of this typhoon event show that: (1) the tidal level and its range increase toward the upstream part of the NB due to the combined effects of the funnel-shaped plane geometry of the NB and the typhoon; (2) the current velocity and the flow spilt ratio of the NB varies with the tides, with a maximum increase by 0.13 m/s and 26.61% during the flood tide and a maximum decrease by 0.12 m/s and 83.33% during the ebb tide, i.e., the typhoon enhances the flood current and weakens the ebb current; (3) the salinity value increases in the NB to a maximum of 1.40 psu and water is well-mixed in the vertical direction in the typhoon’s stable and falling period. The salinity distribution gradually recovered to the normal salt wedge pattern in 3 days following the typhoon. Although this study is based on a site-specific model, the findings will provide valuable insights into saline water intrusion under typhoon events, and thus assist in implementing more efficient estuarine management strategies for drinking water safety.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yohanes Mardinata Rusli ◽  
Piter Nainggolan

<p><em>Tax</em><em>ation</em><em> is the most important state revenue. This can be seen in the posture of the 2020 and 2021 RAPBN (</em><em>Drafted</em><em> </em><em>State Revenue and Expenditure Budget), where in the 2020 State Budget the state revenue is 2,233.2 trillion and 1,865.7, which is equivalent to 83.53%, which is the target of domestic revenue which is comes from taxation sector revenues. Only 16.47% of the targeted state revenue comes from non-tax revenues. Therefore, the importance of taxation is introduced and socialized early on by the taxation authority in Indonesia, namely The Directorate General of </em><em>Taxes</em><em>, Finance Ministry of the Republic Of Indonesia (DGT, Ministry Of  Finance, RI). This is mandatory because there are still many general public as taxpayers who still do not have awareness of the importance of this taxation. From the data in the 2019 Annual Report of the DGT of the Ministry Of Finance of the Republic of Indonesia, It can be seen that the ratio of  of taxpayer compliance in Indonesia to compliance in the submission of tax returns (SPT ) Annual Tax in 2019 for Individual Taxpayers (WPOP) the compliance ratio of both employees and non-employees is 73.23% and 75.93%, this figure is still far from the maximum compliance level of Individual Taxpayers to be achieved by Government. Therefore, real action is needed from the Directorate General of Taxes, Finance Ministry of The Republic Of Indonesia (DGT, Finance Ministry of The Republic Of Indonesia) to carry out tax counseling activities in collaboration with the academic community Which Is included in the strategic planning of the  DGT of Finance Ministry of The Republic Of Indonesia in 2019, namely theme Of increasing tax knowledge and  skills where the target is future taxpayers are students who are in high school (SMU). This activity has been carried out by the DGT of Finance Ministry of Republic Of Indonesia in collaboration with several educational institutions, both schools and universities, of which in 2019 there were 1,092 prospective taxpayers (Class X-XII SMA). Therefore, Bunda Mulia University as one of the higher education institutions that has a Tax Center and cooperates and is under Guidance of tthe DGT of Finance Ministry of Republic Of Indonesia, in this case the North Jakarta Regional Tax Office, participates in supporting outreach activities carried out by the  DGT of Finance Ministry of Republic Of Indonesia by conducting Community Service activities. . This PKM activity was carried out for class XI students at </em><em>SMK </em><em>Budi Asih</em><em> and class XII</em><em> </em><em>students at SMK Dharmasava with </em><em>online through the media google meeting (G-meet) on February 15, 2021, considering that the current COVID-19 pandemic condition in Indonesia and the world makes PKM activities impossible. done face to face. Furthermore, as many as 53 PKM participants who were individuals who attended SMK Budi Asih, participated in this PKM activity. As for after the PKM activity was held, the authors hope that all individuals who attend SMK Budi Asih can better understand the importance of tax knowledge and tax socialization to ensure that these students, who are prospective future taxpayers, can become obedient taxpayers, so that revenue from the taxation sector which is the main state revenue can be met with the target of state revenue.</em></p>


Atmosphere ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (10) ◽  
pp. 1252
Author(s):  
Jie Zhang ◽  
Yinglai Jia ◽  
Rui Ji ◽  
Yifei Wu

The North Atlantic tripole (NAT) is the leading mode of sea-surface temperature (SST) in the decadal time scale. Although the NAT is forced by North Atlantic oscillation (NAO), it also has an effect on the atmosphere; for example, the early winter tripole SST signal can influence storm tracks in March. As the NAT not only changes the baroclinicity of the lower layer but also modifies the moisture being released into the atmosphere, we surmise that the NAT has an impact on moisture transport and atmospheric rivers in the decadal time scale. Using ERA5 reanalysis data, the decadal variations in Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) in the North Atlantic in boral winter in relation to NAT phases were studied. During the positive NAT phase, the positive SST in the central and western North Atlantic increases the humidity and causes an anticyclonic wind response, which enhances the northeastward transport of moisture. As a result, ARs tend to be longer and transport more moisture toward northwestern Europe. This causes enhanced extreme rain in the UK and Norway. During the negative NAT phase, the positive SST anomalies in the south and east of the North Atlantic provide more moisture, induce a southward shift of the ARs and enhance extreme rain in the Iberian Peninsula. The Gulf Stream (GS) front is stronger during the negative NAT phase, increasing the frequency of the atmospheric front and enlarging the rain rate in ARs.


Author(s):  
Haiyi Wang ◽  

During the time that George Orwell lived, the Britain society was on the edge of development and fluctuation, the north-south divide was an issue discussed by journalists and politics, nationally and regionally. George Orwell, by traveling up and down in the whole English territory, wrote down what exactly he saw and experienced in 1930s. In Road to Wigan Pier, he depicted the unemployment and living conditions in North of England, as well as the class division and his potential political views. Road to Wigan Pier influences historical and literature scholars and triggers huge amount of debates on the politics, economy and history of England. Most importantly, it is both a mirror of England in 1930s and a future-teller of the modern society that we are living in. As Benjamin Jonson has claimed, “ He was not of an age, but for all time!”. Most scholars consider the novel is in two parts: the first is the people he met and his physical experience in Wigan, Barnsley and Sheffield (the north). The second is his critical view on socialism in England and the middle class. In Road to Wigan Pier, and contemplating his personal background, what we can conclude is that George Orwell is a novelist, and he is neither a “north” nor a “south”. We have no persuading reasons of his work is not as the same value as those first-hand such as scientific data and photography. However, it is worth analysing his work with the record of the broad social condition in England. As a novelist and an outsider, we can see from the whole novel Road to Wigan Pier that he has his own perspectives on “northernness” from the aspects of employment, working-class and class difference. All these comments of George Orwell, since subjective and personal, especially trigger the politics’ thinking and the improve the social research orientation.


Healthcare ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 1273
Author(s):  
Manoj Sharma ◽  
Kavita Batra ◽  
Ravi Batra

African Americans have been disproportionately vaccinated at lower rates, which warrants the development of theory-based interventions to reduce vaccine hesitancy in this group. The fourth-generation theories, e.g., multi-theory model (MTM) of health behavior change, are vital in developing behavioral interventions. Therefore, the current study aims to determine recent trends in COVID-19 vaccination rates and to test the MTM model in predicting the initiation of COVID-19 vaccines among vaccine-hesitant Blacks. A sample of 428 unvaccinated African Americans were recruited through a web-based survey using a 28-item psychometric valid questionnaire. Chi-square, independent-samples-t-test or Welch’s t test, and Pearson’s correlation tests were utilized for the analyses. Hierarchical regression modelling was performed to determine the increment in variation accounted for through addition of predictors over a set of models. Nearly 48% of unvaccinated Blacks reported being vaccine-hesitant. The vaccine-hesitant group was relatively younger (40.5 years ± 15.8 vs. 46.2 years ± 17.4, p < 0.001), were Republicans (22.1% vs. 10.0%, p < 0.001), lived in the North-East region (26.0% vs. 11.4%, p < 0.001) and had religious affiliations other than Christianity (21.2% vs. 13.6%, p = 0.04). The mean scores of perceived advantages ((9.01 ± 3.10 vs. 7.07 ± 3.60, p < 0.001) and behavioral confidence (8.84 ± 3.76 vs. 5.67 ± 4.09, p < 0.001) were higher among vaccine non-hesitant group as opposed to the hesitant ones. In a final regression model, all MTM constructs) predicted nearly 65% of variance in initiating COVID-19 vaccination behavior among the vaccine-hesitant group (adjusted R2 = 0.649, F = 32.944, p < 0.001). With each unit increment in MTM constructs (e.g., participatory dialogue and behavior confidence), the initiation of COVID-19 vaccination among vaccine-hesitant Blacks increased by 0.106 and 0.166 units, respectively. Based on the findings of this study a m-health educational intervention to promote COVID-19 vaccine uptake behavior among Blacks is proposed.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sunanda Kodikara ◽  
Hossein Tiemoory ◽  
Mangala Chathura De Silva ◽  
Pathmasiri Ranasinghe ◽  
Sudarshana Somasiri ◽  
...  

Abstract Heavy metal (HM) pollution has become a serious threat to coastal aquatic ecosystems. This study, therefore, aimed at assessing the spatial distribution of selected heavy metals/metalloids including Arsenic (As), Cadmium (Cd), Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb), and Mercury (Hg) in surface sediment (0–15 cm) samples collected across Kalametiya Lagoon in southern Sri Lanka. Forty-one (41) grid points of the lagoon were sampled and the sediment samples were analyzed for HM content by using ICP-MS. A questionnaire survey was carried out to investigate the possible sources for HM pollution in Kalametiya Lagoon. Water pH and salinity showed significant variation across the lagoon. Overall mean value of pH and salinity were 6.68 ± 0.17 and 2.9 ± 2.2 PSU respectively. The spatial distribution of the heavy metals was not monotonic and showed a highly spatial variation. The kernel density maps of the measured heavy metals demarcated several different areas of the lagoon. The mean contents of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, and Pb were lower than that of threshold effect level (TEL) however, higher for Hg at the North Inlet. Nevertheless, it was still lower than potential effect level (PEL). Socio-economic interactions have dramatically reduced during the past two decades. Industrial sewage, river suspended sediments and agrochemicals such as fertilizers, pesticides were reportedly identified as the possible sources for heavy metal loads. Accumulation of toxic heavy metals can be minimized by detouring the water inflow to the lagoon.


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