spent fuel
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2022 ◽  
Vol 145 ◽  
pp. 104110
C. Binnersley ◽  
S.F. Ashley ◽  
P. Chard ◽  
A. Lansdell ◽  
G. O'Brien ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 143 ◽  
pp. 104037
Guy L. Fredrickson ◽  
Michael N. Patterson ◽  
DeeEarl Vaden ◽  
Gregory G. Galbreth ◽  
Tae-Sic Yoo ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
Alexander Scott Ditter ◽  
Danil E. Smiles ◽  
Daniel Lussier ◽  
Alison B. Altman ◽  
Mukesh Bachhav ◽  

Soft X-ray spectromicroscopy at the O K-edge, U N 4,5-edges and Ce M 4,5-edges has been performed on focused ion beam sections of spent nuclear fuel for the first time, yielding chemical information on the sub-micrometer scale. To analyze these data, a modification to non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) was developed, in which the data are no longer required to be non-negative, but the non-negativity of the spectral components and fit coefficients is largely preserved. The modified NMF method was utilized at the O K-edge to distinguish between two components, one present in the bulk of the sample similar to UO2 and one present at the interface of the sample which is a hyperstoichiometric UO2+x species. The species maps are consistent with a model of a thin layer of UO2+x over the entire sample, which is likely explained by oxidation after focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning. In addition to the uranium oxide bulk of the sample, Ce measurements were also performed to investigate the oxidation state of that fission product, which is the subject of considerable interest. Analysis of the Ce spectra shows that Ce is in a predominantly trivalent state, with a possible contribution from tetravalent Ce. Atom probe analysis was performed to provide confirmation of the presence and localization of Ce in the spent fuel.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
pp. 2
Andrei A. Andrianov ◽  
Olga N. Andrianova ◽  
Ilya S. Kuptsov ◽  
Leonid I. Svetlichny ◽  
Tatyana V. Utianskaya

The paper presents the results of a case study on evaluating performance and sustainability metrics for Russian nuclear energy deployment scenarios with thermal and sodium-cooled fast reactors in a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Ten possible scenarios are considered which differ in the shares of thermal and sodium-cooled fast reactors, including options involving the use of mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel in thermal reactors. The evolution of the following performance and sustainability metrics is estimated for the period from 2020 to 2100 based on the considered assumptions: annual and cumulative uranium consumption, needs for uranium enrichment capacities, fuel fabrication and reprocessing capacities, spent fuel stocks, radioactive wastes, amounts of plutonium in the nuclear fuel cycle, amounts of accumulated depleted uranium, and the levelised electricity generation cost. The results show that the sustainability of the Russian nuclear energy system can be significantly enhanced through the intensive deployment of sodium-cooled fast reactors and the transition to a closed nuclear fuel cycle. The authors have highlighted some issues for further considerations, which will lead to more rigorous conclusions regarding the preferred options for the development of the national nuclear energy system.

2021 ◽  
pp. 33-39
S. Alyokhina ◽  
А. Kostikov ◽  
N. Smetankina ◽  
P. Gontarovskyi ◽  
N. Garmash ◽  

The work is devoted to the development of methodologies for determining the thermal and thermal-stress states of the main equipment in dry container storage facilities for spent nuclear fuel. Storage facilities of this type are most common for spent fuel of nuclear power reactors. The safety of storage equipment in terms of assessing its service life is not covered widely enough in the world scientific literature. In particular, there are no effective methods for calculating the thermal and thermal-stress states of the equipment that would take into account the influence of many external factors throughout the life of a storage facility. To assess the thermal state of the containers, forward conjugate heat transfer problems, accounting for the mutual heat transfer in both a solid body and in the fluid environment (air), are proposed to be solved. Based on the solution of the conjugate heat transfer problems, the boundary conditions are to be determined to further assess the thermal-stress state of storage containers using inverse heat transfer problems. The proposed approach to determining the thermal and thermal-stress states of a concrete spent fuel container will promote more effective methods for assessing the service life of dry spent fuel storage facilities, which is, in turn, necessary in the development of ageing management programs for storage equipment and long-term safe operation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 (2) ◽  
pp. 56-64
Zulfiandri Zulfiandri ◽  

The service life of Non-Reactor Nuclear Installations (INNR) in Indonesia is quite long, so it is essential to make modifications. In addition, developments of technology and market demand with the products could modify INNR, such as replacing and adding a control system to interim storage of nuclear-spent fuel facility (KHIPSB3) [1]. Due to the absence of technical regulations related to the modification and utilization of the new INNR and to provide uniformity of format and content in carrying out the further utilization and modification of the INNR, it is necessary to study the literature, compare regulations and consult with resource persons. From the results of these studies and consultations, an overview and solution of arrangements before, during, and after the new utilization or modification of INNR are obtained, making it easier for permit holders or evaluators to carry out activities related to the further utilization or modification of INNR. From the review results, we can conclude that special regulations related to the safety of new utilization or modification of INNR need to be issued immediately by the regulatory body. This review is expected to be a reference in making regulations for the further utilization and modification of INNR, which regulates the format and content of the modification or new utilization of INNR, which becomes a guideline for licensee and evaluators in implementing further utilization and modification of INNR. Keywords: modification, utilization, INNR

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