Community Structure
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2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Imre Demeter ◽  
Adalbert Balog ◽  
Miklós Sárospataki

During the study, the honeybee effects on wild bees were tested and hypothesized that smaller distances from beehives will increase competitions between honeybees and wild bees, while greater distances will have a deleterious effect on competition. The impact on species richness and diversity was tested with distances from beehives, considering that this may differ when large and small wild bee species are considered separately. Altogether 158 species and 13,164 individuals were collected, from which 72% (9,542 individuals) were Apis mellifera. High variation in abundances was detected from one year to another, and the species turnover by sites was 67% in site A, 66% in site V, and 63% in site F. This last one was the site with the previous contact with honeybees. Considering distances from beehives, significant decreases in small bee species diversity were detected from one year to another at each distance except site F, 250 m from hives. The changes in species diversity and community structure of small bee species are detected from one year to another.

2021 ◽  
Vol 87 (2) ◽  
pp. 205-205
MT Camarena-Gómez ◽  
T Lipsewers ◽  
J Piiparinen ◽  
E Eronen-Rasimus ◽  
D Perez-Quemaliños ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (4) ◽  
Josélia Rozanny Vieira Pacheco ◽  
Felipe Fajardo Villela Antolin Barberena

Vascular epiphytes are one of the most important forest components, contributing to microclimatic maintenance. These plants find ideal conditions for development in the Amazon due to the spatial heterogeneity and high temperature and humidity typical of this biome. In recent years, the Brazilian Amazon has undergone dramatic changes in its landscape, mainly due to the increase in deforestation and fire rates. We present here the floristic composition and analyze the community structure of epiphytic angiosperms of an urban forest fragment in Eastern Amazon. A total of 71 epiphytic individuals were recorded belonging to eight species and four families. Orchidaceae was the most representative family, corroborating the pattern for surveys of epiphytic diversity in the Neotropical region. Epiphytic species were found on 24 individuals of 10 tree species. The epiphytic importance value (IVe) was low for all species, except for Aechmea tocantina and Rhipsalis baccifera. Cactaceae was the family with the highest IVe. Most epiphytes were found in the crown of trees (83.1%). The diversity index of the fragment was H’ = 1.80 and the equity index was J= 0.87, reflecting the absence of highly dominant species. Conservation of urban forest fragments is necessary for the maintenance of epiphytic flora and ecosystem services.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Savannah L. Goode ◽  
Ashley A. Rowden ◽  
David A. Bowden ◽  
Malcolm R. Clark ◽  
Fabrice Stephenson

Seamounts are common features of the deep seafloor that are often associated with aggregations of mega-epibenthic fauna, including deep-sea corals and sponges. Globally, many seamounts also host abundant fish stocks, supporting commercial bottom trawl fisheries that impact non-target benthic species through damage and/or removal of these non-target species. However, the effects of bottom trawling on seamount benthic communities, as well as their recovery potential, will vary over the total seamount area because of differences in within seamount habitat and community structure. It is therefore important to understand fine-scale community dynamics, community patch characteristics, and the environmental drivers contributing to these patterns to improve habitat mapping efforts on seamounts and to determine the potential for benthic communities on seamounts to recover from fishing disturbances. Here we analysed the structure and distribution of mega-epibenthic communities on two New Zealand seamounts with different physical environments to determine which environmental variables best correlated with variation in community structure within each seamount. We used the identified environmental variables to predict the distribution of communities beyond the sampled areas, then described the spatial patterns and patch characteristics of the predicted community distributions. We found the environmental variables that best explained variations in community structure differed between the seamounts and at different spatial scales. These differences were reflected in the distribution models: communities on one seamount were predicted to form bands with depth, while on the other seamount communities varied mostly with broadscale aspect and the presence of small pinnacles. The number and size of community patches, inter-patch distances, and patch connectedness were found to differ both within and between seamounts. These types of analyses and results can be used to inform the spatial management of seamount ecosystems.

2021 ◽  
Fei Xu ◽  
Lanping Zhu ◽  
Jiaying Wang ◽  
Yuqin Xue ◽  
Kunhe Liu ◽  

Abstract Nonpoint source pollution (NPSP) from human production and life activities causes severe destruction in river basin environments. In this study, three types of sediment samples (A, NPSP tributary samples; B, non-NPSP mainstream samples; C, NPSP mainstream samples) were collected at the estuary of the NPSP tributary of the Jialing River. High-throughput sequencing of the fungal-specific internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene region was used to identify fungal taxa. The impact of NPSP on the aquatic environment of the Jialing River was revealed by analysing the community structure, community diversity and functions of sediment fungi. The results showed that the dominant phylum of sediment fungi was Rozellomycota, followed by Ascomycota, Chytridiomycota, Basidiomycota, Mortierellomycota and Zoopagomycota (relative abundance>1%). NPSP caused a significant increase in the relative abundances of Rozellomycota, Saccharomycetes, Microascales, Saccharomycetales, Branch02 and Branch03. In addition, it caused a significant decrease in the relative abundances of Chytridiomycota, Dothideomycetes, Capnodiales, Glomerellales, Xylariales and Chaetothyriales. Moreover, NPSP caused significant changes in the physicochemical properties of Jialing River sediments, such as pH and available nitrogen (AN), which significantly increased the species richness of fungi and caused significant changes in the fungal community β-diversity (P<0.05). pH, total phosphorus (TP) and AN were the main environmental factors affecting fungal communities in Jialing River sediments. The functions of sediment fungi mainly involved three types of nutrient metabolism (symbiotrophic, pathotrophic and saprotrophic) and 75 metabolic circulation pathways. NPSP significantly improved the NONOXIPENT-PWY, PENTOSE-P-PWY, and PWY-6837 metabolic circulation pathway functions (P<0.05) and inhibited the PWY-7118, PWY-5920, and PWY-6609 metabolic circulation pathway functions (P<0.05). Hence, NPSP causes changes in the community structure and functions of sediment fungi in Jialing River and destroys the stability of the Jialing River Basin ecosystem.

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