microbial community structure
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 63
Haiyan Wang ◽  
Rong Zhang ◽  
Yunfei Mao ◽  
Weitao Jiang ◽  
Xuesen Chen ◽  

Trichoderma asperellum strain 6S-2 with biocontrol effects and potential growth-promoting properties was made into a fungal fertilizer for the prevention of apple replant disease (ARD). 6S-2 fertilizer not only promoted the growth of Malus hupehensis Rehd seedlings in greenhouse and pot experiments, but also increased the branch elongation growth of young apple trees. The soil microbial community structure changed significantly after the application of 6S-2 fertilizer: the relative abundance of Trichoderma increased significantly, the relative abundance of Fusarium (especially the gene copy numbers of four Fusarium species) and Cryptococcus decreased, and the relative abundance of Bacillus and Streptomyces increased. The bacteria/fungi and soil enzyme activities increased significantly after the application of 6S-2 fertilizer. The relative contents of alkenes, ethyl ethers, and citrullines increased in root exudates of M. hupehensis Rehd treated with 6S-2 fertilizer and were positively correlated with the abundance of Trichoderma. The relative contents of aldehydes, nitriles, and naphthalenes decreased, and they were positively correlated with the relative abundance of Fusarium. In addition, levels of ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), available phosphorus (AP), available potassium (AK), organic matter (SOM), and pH in rhizosphere soil were also significantly related to changes in the microbial community structure. In summary, the application of 6S-2 fertilizer was effective in alleviating some aspects of ARD by promoting plant growth and optimizing the soil microbial community structure.

Antibiotics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 68
Chaoyue Zhang ◽  
Dan Wang ◽  
Weihong He ◽  
Hong Liu ◽  
Jianjun Chen ◽  

Plant-based removal of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from water bodies is an important method for remediation of aquaculture wastewater. In order to acquire knowledge as to how antibiotic residues in wastewater might affect the microbial community and plant uptake of N and P, this study investigated N and P removal by a coastal plant Sesuvium portulacastrum L. grown in aquaculture wastewater treated with 0, 1, 5, or 50 mg/L sulfonamide antibiotics (sulfadiazine, SD) for 28 days and compared the microbial community structure between the water and rhizosphere. Results showed that SD significantly decreased N removal rates from 87.5% to 22.1% and total P removal rates from 99.6% to 85.5%. Plant fresh weights, root numbers, and moisture contents as well as activities of some enzymes in leaves were also reduced. SD changed the microbial community structure in water, but the microbial community structure in the rhizosphere was less affected by SD. The microbial diversity in water was higher than that in the rhizosphere, indicating microbial community differences. Our results showed that the commonly used antibiotic, SD, in aquaculture can inhibit plant growth, change the structure of microbial community, and reduce the capacity of S. portulacastrum plants to remove N and P from wastewater, and also raised alarm about detrimental effects of antibiotic residues in phytoremediation of wastewater.

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