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2022 ◽  
Vol 204 ◽  
pp. 112012
Author(s):  
Patricia Guzmán ◽  
Patricia Tarín-Carrasco ◽  
María Morales-Suárez-Varela ◽  
Pedro Jiménez-Guerrero

2022 ◽  
Vol 327 ◽  
pp. 107830
Author(s):  
Esra H. Sohlström ◽  
Ulrich Brose ◽  
Roel van Klink ◽  
Björn C. Rall ◽  
Benjamin Rosenbaum ◽  
...  

Ibis ◽  
2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Luke J. Sutton ◽  
David L. Anderson ◽  
Miguel Franco ◽  
Christopher J.W. McClure ◽  
Everton B.P. Miranda ◽  
...  

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Ning Shi ◽  
Niyati Naudiyal ◽  
Jinniu Wang ◽  
Narayan Prasad Gaire ◽  
Yan Wu ◽  
...  

Meconopsis punicea is an iconic ornamental and medicinal plant whose natural habitat has degraded under global climate change, posing a serious threat to the future survival of the species. Therefore, it is critical to analyze the influence of climate change on possible distribution of M. punicea for conservation and sustainable utilization of this species. In this study, we used MaxEnt ecological niche modeling to predict the potential distribution of M. punicea under current and future climate scenarios in the southeastern margin region of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Model projections under current climate show that 16.8% of the study area is suitable habitat for Meconopsis. However, future projections indicate a sharp decline in potential habitat for 2050 and 2070 climate change scenarios. Soil type was the most important environmental variable in determining the habitat suitability of M. punicea, with 27.75% contribution to model output. Temperature seasonality (16.41%), precipitation of warmest quarter (14.01%), and precipitation of wettest month (13.02%), precipitation seasonality (9.41%) and annual temperature range (9.24%) also made significant contributions to model output. The mean elevation of suitable habitat for distribution of M. punicea is also likely to shift upward in most future climate change scenarios. This study provides vital information for the protection and sustainable use of medicinal species like M. punicea in the context of global environmental change. Our findings can aid in developing rational, broad-scale adaptation strategies for conservation and management for ecosystem services, in light of future climate changes.


Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 512
Author(s):  
Andrew Wright ◽  
Eduardas Venskunas

The global climate is warming rapidly, with increasing frequency of severe events including heatwaves. Building insulation standards are improving to reduce emissions, but this can also lead to more overheating. Historically, UK house designers have not included adaptation measures to limit this. Most studies of the problem have had limited geographical or future climate scope. This study considers the comfort performance of a small modern house, in detached, semi-detached, and terrace (row) forms, but otherwise identical. Overheating is evaluated according to established criteria, including night-time bedroom hours over 26 °C. Simulations are carried out using median future weather years for current, 2030s, 2050s, and 2080s climates under medium- and high-emission scenarios for 14 regions of the UK. The results show a very large increase in overheating by the 2080s in all regions. With solar shading and natural ventilation, overheating is reduced considerably, maintaining comfort in most northern regions in the 2050s and a few northern regions in the 2080s. Differences between medium and high emissions are generally less than between different decades. Terraced (row) houses consistently overheat slightly more than semi-detached, with detached showing the least overheating.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Joel Dawson White ◽  
Lena Ström ◽  
Veiko Lehsten ◽  
Janne Rinne ◽  
Dag Ahrén

Abstract. Microbial communities of methane (CH4) producing methanogens and consuming methanotrophs play an important role for Earth's atmospheric CH4 budget. Despite their global significance, knowledge on how much they control the spatial variation in CH4 fluxes from peatlands is poorly understood. We studied variation in CH4 producing and consuming communities in a natural peatland dominated by Eriophorum vaginatum, via a metagenomics approach using custom designed hybridization-based oligonucleotide probes to focus on taxa and functions associated with methane cycling. We hypothesized that sites with different magnitudes of methane flux are occupied by structurally and functionally different microbial communities, despite the dominance of a single vascular plant species. To investigate this, nine plant-peat mesocosms dominated by the sedge Eriophorum vaginatum, with varying vegetation coverage, were collected from a temperate natural wetland and subjected to a simulated growing season. During the simulated growing season, measurements of CH4 emission, carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange and δ13C signature of emitted CH4 were made. Mesocosms 1 through 9 were classified into three categories according to the magnitude of CH4 flux. Gross primary production and ecosystem respiration followed the same pattern as CH4 fluxes, but this trend was not observed in net ecosystem exchange. We observed that genetic functional potential was of minor importance in explaining spatial variability of CH4 fluxes with only small shifts in taxonomic community and functional genes. In addition, a higher β-diversity was observed in samples with high CH4 emission. Among methanogens, Methanoregula, made up over 50 % of the community composition. This, in combination with the remaining hydrogenotrophic methanogens matched the δ13C isotopic signature of emitted CH4. However, the presence of acetoclastic and methylotrophic taxa and type I, II and Verrucomicrobia methanotrophs indicates that the microbial community holds the ability to produce and consume CH4 in multiple ways. This is important in terms of future climate scenarios, where peatlands are expected to alter in nutrient status, hydrology, and peat biochemistry. Due to the high functional potential, we expect the community to be highly adaptive to future climate scenarios.


Eos ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 103 ◽  
Author(s):  
Rachel Fritts

As temperatures rise, tropical forests will become more stressed and photosynthesize less.


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