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2022 ◽  
Vol 327 ◽  
pp. 107825
Cristina Lazcano ◽  
Noelymar Gonzalez-Maldonado ◽  
Erika H. Yao ◽  
Connie T.F. Wong ◽  
Jenna J. Merrilees ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 210 ◽  
pp. 105888
Xian Tang ◽  
Jiashuai Hu ◽  
Ying Lu ◽  
Jingchi Qiu ◽  
Yuqing Dong ◽  
Land Use ◽  
Red Soil ◽  
Soil C ◽  

2022 ◽  
Jianyong Ma ◽  
Sam S. Rabin ◽  
Peter Anthoni ◽  
Anita D. Bayer ◽  
Sylvia S. Nyawira ◽  

Abstract. Improved agricultural management plays a vital role in protecting soils from degradation in Eastern Africa. Changing practices such as reducing tillage, fertilizer use or cover crops are expected to enhance soil organic carbon (SOC) storage, with climate change mitigation co-benefits, while increasing crop production. However, the quantification of cropland managements’ effects on agricultural ecosystems remains inadequate in this region. Here, we explored seven management practices and their potential effects on soil carbon (C) pools, nitrogen (N) losses, and crop yields under different climate scenarios, using the dynamic vegetation model LPJ-GUESS. The model performance is evaluated against observations from two long-term maize field trials in western Kenya and reported estimates from published sources. LPJ-GUESS generally produces soil C stocks and maize productivity comparable with measurements, and mostly captures the SOC decline under some management practices that is observed in the field experiments. We found that for large parts of Kenya and Ethiopia, an integrated conservation agriculture practice (no-tillage, residue and manure application, and cover crops) increases SOC levels in the long term (+11 % on average), accompanied by increased crop yields (+22 %) in comparison to the standard management. Planting nitrogen-fixing cover crops in our simulations is also identified as a promising individual practice in Eastern Africa to increase soil C storage (+4 %) and crop production (+18 %), with low environmental cost of N losses (+24 %). These management impacts are also sustained in simulations of three future climate pathways. This study highlights the possibilities of conservation agriculture when targeting long-term environmental sustainability and food security in crop ecosystems, particularly for those with poor soil conditions in tropical climates.

2022 ◽  
Kristof Van Oost ◽  
Jo Six

Abstract. The acceleration of erosion, transport and burial of soil organic carbon (C) in response to agricultural expansion represents a significant perturbation of the terrestrial C cycle. Recent model advances now enable improved representation of the relationships between sedimentary processes and C cycling and this has led to substantially revised assessments of changes in land C as a result of land cover and climate change. However, surprisingly a consensus on both the direction and magnitude of the erosion-induced land-atmosphere C exchange is still lacking. Here, we show that the apparent soil C erosion paradox, i.e., whether agricultural erosion results in a C sink or source, can be reconciled when comprehensively considering the range of temporal (from seconds to millennia) and spatial scales (from soil microaggregates to the Land Ocean Aquatic Continuum (LOAC)) at which erosional effects on the C cycle operate. Based on the currently available data (74 studies), we developed a framework that describes erosion-induced C sink and source terms across scales. Based on this framework, we conclude that erosion is a source for atmospheric CO2 when considering only small temporal and spatial scales, while both sinks and sources appear when multi-scaled approaches are used. We emphasize the need for erosion control for the benefits it brings for the delivery of ecosystem services, particularly in low-input systems, but our analysis clearly demonstrates that cross-scale approaches are essential to accurately represent erosion effects on the global C cycle.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 176
Suying Chen ◽  
Peipei Yang ◽  
Yuming Zhang ◽  
Wenxu Dong ◽  
Chunsheng Hu ◽  

Current tillage practices in the important winter wheat–summer maize double cropping system of the North China Plain are under debate because of negative effects on soil quality and crop yield. Therefore, a long-term experiment was conducted from 2001 to 2018 to determine the effects of soil conservation practices on crop yield and soil quality. The treatments were imposed following maize harvest and prior wheat seeding, and were defined as follows: (1) moldboard ploughing (0–20 cm) following maize straw removal (CK); (2) moldboard ploughing (0–20 cm) following maize straw return (CT); (3) rotary tillage following maize straw return (RT); and (4) no tillage with maize straw covering the soil surface (NT). Wheat straw was chopped and spread on the soil in all treatments and maize seeded without prior tillage. Wheat yields were higher in CT than RT and NT treatments (p < 0.05); NT had 18% lower wheat yields than CT. No significant differences were found between treatments in summer maize yields. The soil organic carbon (SOC) content in the surface layer (0–5 cm) was higher in NT and RT compared to CT and CK. However, SOC content in the 10–20 cm and 20–30 cm layers was lower in NT and RT compared to CT and CK. Similarly, available phosphorus in the surface soil was higher in NT and RT than in CT and CK. but the opposite was true for the lower soil layers. SOC stocks (0–30 cm) increased in all treatments, and were initially faster in NT and RT than in CT and CK. However, SOC stocks were higher in CT than in other treatments at the end of the experiment. This finding indicates that no tillage and reduced tillage decreased both wheat yields and soil C sequestration over time; it also indicates that CT was the most robust in terms of crop yields and soil C sequestration.

Caius Ribeiro-Kumara ◽  
Cristina Santín ◽  
Stefan H. Doerr ◽  
Jukka Pumpanen ◽  
Greg Baxter ◽  

Fires are an important perturbation for the carbon (C) dynamics of boreal forests, especially when they are stand-replacing. In North American boreal forests, crown fires are predominant and, therefore, the most studied. However, surface fires can also lead to major tree mortality with substantial implications for the C balance. Here, we assess the short- (hours – days) to medium-term (1 – 3 years) effects of the different fire types (surface vs. crown) on the postfire soil C effluxes in jack pine and black spruce forest stands in the Northwest Territories, Canada. We found that while trees were instantly killed by the four crown fires studied, trees also died within one year after two of three surface fires studied. Associated with this tree mortality, soil autotrophic respiration decreased after both fire types, although at different timings. The soil heterotrophic respiration was either lower or unchanged when measured 1 – 3 years after either fire type, but was increased when measured immediately after a surface fire, possibly due to the interaction between ash generation and wetting performed to suppress the fire. Our results suggest that both fire types can thus substantially alter C fluxes in the short- to medium-term, both through changes in vegetation and the soil environment.

Enzhu Hu ◽  
Zhimin Ren ◽  
Xiaoke Wang ◽  
Hongxing Zhang ◽  
Weiwei Zhang

Abstract Elevated tropospheric ozone concentration ([O3]) may substantially influence the belowground processes of the terrestrial ecosystem. Nevertheless, a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of the responses of soil C and N dynamics to elevated [O3] remains elusive. In this study, the results of 41 peer-reviewed studies were synthesized using meta-analytic techniques, to quantify the impact of O3 on ten variables associated with soil C and N, i.e., total C (TC, including soil organic C), total N (TN), dissolved organic C (DOC), ammonia N (NH4 +), nitrate N (NO3 -), microbial biomass C (MBC) and N (MBN), rates of nitrification (NTF) and denitrification (DNF), as well as C/N ratio. The results depicted that all these variables showed significant changes (P < 0.05) with [O3] increased by 27.6 ± 18.7 nL/L (mean ± SD), including decreases in TC, DOC, TN, NH4 +, MBC, MBN and NTF, and increases in C/N, NO3 - and DNF. The effect sizes of TN, NTF, and DNF were significantly correlated with O3 fumigation level and experimental duration (P < 0.05). Soil pH and climate were essential in analyses of O3 impacts on soil C and N. However, the responses of most variables to elevated [O3] were generally independent of O3 fumigation method, terrestrial ecosystem type, and additional [CO2] exposure. The altered soil C and N dynamics under elevated [O3] may reduce its C sink capacity, and change soil N availability thus impact plant growth and enhance soil N losses.

Agriculture ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 88
David S. Howlett ◽  
J. Ryan Stewart ◽  
Jun Inoue ◽  
Masanori Saito ◽  
DoKyoung Lee ◽  

Miscanthus-dominated semi-natural grasslands in Japan appear to store considerable amounts of soil C. To estimate the long-term effect of Miscanthus vegetation on the accumulation of soil carbon by soil biota degradation in its native range, we measured total soil C from the surface to a 1.2 m depth along a catena toposequence in three annually burned grasslands in Japan: Kawatabi, Soni, and Aso. Soil C stock was estimated using a radiocarbon age and depth model, resulting in a net soil C accumulation rate in the soil. C4-plant contribution to soil C accumulation was further estimated by δ13C of soil C. The range of total soil C varied among the sites (i.e., Kawatabi: 379–638 Mg, Soni: 249–484, and Aso: 372–408 Mg C ha−1). Catena position was a significant factor at Kawatabi and Soni, where the toe slope soil C accumulation exceeded that of the summit. The soil C accumulation rate of the whole horizon in the grasslands, derived C mainly from C4 plant species, was 0.05 ± 0.02 (Average ± SE), 0.04 ± 0.00, and 0.24 ± 0.04 Mg C ha−1 yr−1 in Kawatabi, Soni, and Aso, respectively. Potential exists for long-term sequestration of C under M. sinensis, but the difference in the C accumulation rate can be influenced by the catena position and the amount of vegetation.

2022 ◽  
Rika Ratna Sari ◽  
Danaë M. A. Rozendaal ◽  
Danny Dwi Saputra ◽  
Kurniatun Hairiah ◽  
James M. Roshetko ◽  

Abstract Backgrounds and aims Litter protects the underlying soil, depending on litterfall and decomposition, but dynamics of the standing litter stock in agroforestry systems remain poorly understood. We aimed to unravel effects of litter quality, temporal patterns, microclimate, and a possible home-field advantage (HFA) on standing litter dynamics across a land-use gradient. Methods We quantified litterfall, the standing litter stock, and microclimate during a year in (remnant) forest, cacao-based simple and complex agroforestry, cacao monocultures, and annual crops in a cacao producing area in Indonesia. We conducted a reciprocal litter transfer experiment, and tested decomposition rates of pruning residues. Standing litter stocks during the year were estimated from monthly litterfall and decomposition rates. Results Variation in litter quality influenced decomposition rates more strongly than variation in microclimate or HFA. Lower litter quality in complex agroforestry and in the cacao monoculture decreased the decay rate compared to simple agroforestry systems; mean litter residence time was over a year. Mixing high- and low-quality material in pruning residues modified the decomposition rate, soil C and N changes, offering options for targeted management of soil protection and nutrient release. Conclusions The seasonal patterns of litterfall and relatively slow decomposition rates supported permanence of the litter layer in all cacao production systems, protecting the underlying soil.

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