Disclosure Quality
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Shuo Yang

This paper examines comment letters on firms’ annual reports in an emerging market. The literature primarily focuses on comment letters issued by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), although many other market regulators also use SEC-style comment letters. Comment letters can potentially be very impactful in emerging markets due to weak institutions and low disclosure quality in these markets. Using comment letters in China from 2015 to 2019, I find that the market response to the receipt of comment letters is significantly negative and associated with the severity of the comment letters. The receipt (severity) of comment letters is associated with adverse regulatory consequences, CEO turnover, corrective actions to remedy financial reporting, and poor future financial performance in the propensity score matched sample (recipient sample). Overall disclosure quality in the post-review year does not increase, but some comment letter topics prompt topic-specific financial reporting changes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Yang Miao ◽  
Xiaoxue Zhou ◽  
Xin Dai

The challenges of financing have been troubling the development of Chinese enterprises, especially private enterprises. This paper aims to examine the antecedents and consequences of debt financing costs. Drawing on a sample of Chinese A-share listed companies in Shanghai and Shenzhen from 2009 to 2018, the study examined the relationship between corporate social responsibility disclosure, debt financing costs, and innovation capacity. This paper found that the quality of CSR disclosure is negatively related to the cost of debt financing and examined the situational differences in the impact of CSR disclosure quality under different property rights, different disclosure forms, and different forensic effects. Moreover, it is found that the negative effect of CSR disclosure quality on debt financing cost helps to induce the innovation capacity of enterprises. The findings of this paper have certain reference value for corporate improvement of social responsibility disclosure.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (18) ◽  
pp. 10156
Iman Harymawan ◽  
Fajar Kristanto Gautama Putra ◽  
Bayu Arie Fianto ◽  
Wan Adibah Wan Ismail

This study examines the relationship between financial distress and environmental, social, and governance (ESG) disclosure. We hypothesize that financially distressed firms are tempted to enhance ESG disclosure as it provides higher performance in terms of financial and market perspectives. ESG disclosure needs substantial resources, which financially distressed firms may not be able to provide. In Indonesian settings, we find that financially distressed firms have lower ESG disclosure quality than non-distressed firms. Our results are robust due to lagged variable, Heckman’s two stages, and coarsened exact matching regression showing consistent results. Furthermore, our results are consistent with three years of rolling windows of financial distress and all sections of ESG reporting, except the general information section. This study extends the scope of prior studies by focusing on firms’ eagerness to provide higher quality ESG disclosure, particularly distressed firms.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Li Gao ◽  
Jinnan Song ◽  
Jianxiao Guo ◽  
Jiajuan Liang

Purpose Share pledge is a popular way to raise funds in China, but it aggravates information asymmetry. As an indispensable information intermediary in the financial market, media coverage affects asset price and pricing efficiency and impacts information asymmetry. This study aims to explore the governance role of media coverage as an information intermediary in the share pledge context in China. Design/methodology/approach Moderating effect and mediating effect analyses are the primary methods used to test the governance role of media coverage. The ordinary least squares model was used to test the relationship between share pledge and market performance and then proved the moderating effect of media coverage toward the corporate market value of pledge firms. Accounting earnings value relevance models were explored to test the path of media coverage on firm market value by mediating effect analysis. At last, subgroup tests were used to verify the heterogeneity of the moderating effect of media coverage. Findings In the context of share pledge in China, the higher the share pledge ratio, the higher is the market value of listed firms, which verifies the motivation of controlling shareholders to avoid the transfer of control right and the motivation to tunneling. Media coverage has a significant negative moderating effect on the relationship between share pledge rate and corporate value and has a significant impact on the accounting earnings value relevance of share pledge firms. From the perspective of long-term earnings, media coverage reduces the market performance of share pledge firms by reducing the value correlation of accounting earnings information. From the short-term price point of view, media coverage reduces the market performance of share pledge firms by improving the value correlation of accounting earnings information. Furthermore, media coverage has a more significant moderating effect in state-owned share pledge firms and low information transparency and low information disclosure quality firms. Research limitations/implications This paper does not distinguish the mode difference of spreading news and the impact of non-pledge media coverage. Also, this paper does not consider factors other than accounting information value relevance when exploring how media coverage affects the corporate market value. Share pledge firms should use media for publicity and play a role in media governance and should actively improve their information disclosure quality, strengthen communication with investors and reduce information asymmetry fundamentally. Practical implications This paper diversify the governance choices for share pledge firms and has important implications for firms, investors, information intermediaries and regulators. Media reports play an increasingly important role today, and any reports and predictions of major events may profoundly affect investors’ decisions. Although media reports can make up for the weakness of accounting information disclosure of equity pledge companies in some sense, it is still not a long-term strategy. Equity pledge companies should not only make use of media for publicity and play a role of media governance but also actively improve their information disclosure quality. Originality/value This paper focuses on share pledge firms to carry out in-depth research. Based on exploring the influence mechanism of share pledges, the authors find the importance of media governance. This paper expands the literature about the economic consequences of share pledges and provides empirical data for media governance of share pledge firms. This paper innovatively proves the governance role of media coverage from the view of accounting information value relevance. The main innovation point is the long and short-term perspective analysis of the influence of media coverage on the correlation of accounting earnings value. The heterogeneity effect analysis of media coverage also reflects the depth and strong practical guiding significance of this study.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Hamzeh Al Amosh ◽  
Saleh F.A. Khatib

PurposeThe current study dealt with the ownership structure effect as a potential determinant of the environmental, social and governance (ESG) performance disclosure in the Jordanian context.Design/methodology/approachUsing the content analysis technique, data were collected and analyzed from a final sample of 51 annual reports of Jordanian industrial companies listed for 2012–2019.FindingsThe results show that foreign ownership and state ownership play a critical role in disclosing the ESG performance. Also, the board's independence plays an influential role in improving disclosure quality, enhancing family ownership in disclosure. It also limits the negative role of block holder ownership and managerial ownership on the ESG disclosure.Originality/valueTo the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first study that deals with the role of ownership structure on the ESG disclosure level separately and collectively through the moderating role of board independence.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-24
Shaorou Hu ◽  
Ming Liu ◽  
Byungcherl Charlie Sohn ◽  
Desmond C. Y. Yuen

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (9) ◽  
pp. 61
Ghalya Metlej ◽  
Yahya Zalzali ◽  
Mohamad Farhat

This study aims to demonstrate the impact of banking risk management on the quality of disclosure in the financial reports of a sample of Lebanese commercial banks by addressing the subject in its theoretical and practical framework and its relationship with internal and external auditing. To achieve this goal, the study relied on the descriptive and analytical approach, and a sample of directors of the risk management department and directors of internal audit departments in the banks under study was selected, in addition to a sample of account auditors affiliated with the Association of Certified Public Accountants in Lebanon. For the purposes of statistical processing, appropriate statistical methods were used and the statistical analysis necessary to complete the current study was carried out, using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program to process the data and extract the frequencies, arithmetic means and standard deviations according to the study page, and to test the study hypotheses at a significant level (0.05 ≥α). The study found a positive correlation between the level of disclosure of financial risk and each of currency risk, interest risk, credit risk, market risk and operational risk, in addition to the existence of a close relationship between audit and risk management, and is reflected in the quality of disclosure so that the efficiency and effectiveness in banking work leads to controlling these risks and avoiding them in the future.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Jiunn-Shyan Khong ◽  
Chee-Wooi Hooy ◽  
Chun-Teck Lye

PurposeThis study investigates the effect of board independence on private information-based trading (PIBT) events. This study also examines the interaction effects of firm's disclosure quality and the statutory and demographic roles of independent directors and board diversity attributes, respectively, on the relationship between board independence and PIBT.Design/methodology/approachThis study uses panel data of 811 non-financial public listed companies in Bursa Malaysia for the sample period 2009–2017. The dynamic general method of moments (DGMM) is used for the dynamic panel data estimation and to address the potential endogeneity problem.FindingsThe results show that board independence has a negative effect on PIBT and the effect could be strengthened by firm's disclosure quality, women independent directors and board gender diversity, but attenuated by CEO duality. The overall result suggests that apart from independent audit committee, the statutory and demographic attributes of independent directors and board diversity, and firm's disclosure quality are complementary to board independence in preventing persistent PIBT.Originality/valueThis study augments the existing corporate governance and information-based trading literature from the perspectives of firm's disclosure quality, and the statutory and demographic roles of independent directors and board diversity attributes, by examining their effects on the relationship between board independence and PIBT.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Simona Fiandrino ◽  
Melchior Gromis di Trana ◽  
Alberto Tonelli ◽  
Antonella Lucchese

PurposeThe aim of this paper is to provide the state of the art in the academic and professional debate on the disclosure quality of NFI. This analysis is driven by the need to feature the dimensions of NFI quality that should be considered to improve the current regulatory framework towards a more transparent disclosure.Design/methodology/approachThe research is an integrative literature review that assesses and synthesizes the scientific knowledge and the annexed documents collected during the public consultation for the Review of Non-financial Reporting Directive (NFRD) on the disclosure quality of non-financial information (NFI).FindingsFindings show that there is a common consensus between scientific literature and the annexed documents of the consultation process on the Review of the NFRD on the need to enhance a double-materiality perspective, to provide specific contents on sustainability issues, to clarify the relevance of NFI, and to embed NFI into the management report in an integrated manner. Furthermore, there is an alignment related to timeliness in favour of a risk management procedure and a forward-looking approach.Research limitations/implicationsThe research engages the debate on the NFI disclosure quality, in light of the recent Review of NRFD and the new Proposal of Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive that extends and enhances the non-binding reporting guidelines of NFI.Practical implicationsThe research provides a dashboard of the dimensions of NFI disclosure quality that aggregates the academics' and practitioners' knowledge systematically. It shows the interplay between the scholarly developments and the recent measures arisen in the consultation process to undertake NFI disclosure quality.Originality/valueThe research provides a lens to analyse, classify and interpret the insights emerged during the consultation process of the NFRD.

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