content analysis
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2022 ◽  
Vol 29 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-28
Author(s):  
Eunice Jun ◽  
Melissa Birchfield ◽  
Nicole De Moura ◽  
Jeffrey Heer ◽  
René Just

Data analysis requires translating higher level questions and hypotheses into computable statistical models. We present a mixed-methods study aimed at identifying the steps, considerations, and challenges involved in operationalizing hypotheses into statistical models, a process we refer to as hypothesis formalization . In a formative content analysis of 50 research papers, we find that researchers highlight decomposing a hypothesis into sub-hypotheses, selecting proxy variables, and formulating statistical models based on data collection design as key steps. In a lab study, we find that analysts fixated on implementation and shaped their analyses to fit familiar approaches, even if sub-optimal. In an analysis of software tools, we find that tools provide inconsistent, low-level abstractions that may limit the statistical models analysts use to formalize hypotheses. Based on these observations, we characterize hypothesis formalization as a dual-search process balancing conceptual and statistical considerations constrained by data and computation and discuss implications for future tools.


Author(s):  
Beatriz Casais ◽  
Andreia Teixeira ◽  
Cristina Fernandes

Retail brands were initially introduced as low quality brands with low prices. Currently, customers understand that these brands are valuable price/quality options and have a preference for them. The increased competition among distribution companies have forced retailers to increasingly introduce sustainable practices, including in own brands. This paper analyses the corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication through the packaging of retailers’ products. Following a content analysis of 377 packages of private labels from seven retail chains in Portugal, the authors concluded that there is CSR information in packages disclosing a variety of themes. A survey to 539 consumer indicate that consumer perceptions of CSR in packages correspond to the issues most valued. Health topics and national origin are better perceived and valued, even when they are not the most prevalent themes in packages. Environmental signals are lower perceived and valued, even when a similar or higher prevalence in packages.


2022 ◽  
Vol 13 ◽  
pp. 100525
Author(s):  
L. Brooke Keliikoa ◽  
Mika D. Thompson ◽  
Chris J. Johnson ◽  
Stephanie L. Cacal ◽  
Catherine M. Pirkle ◽  
...  

2121 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 9-16
Author(s):  
Mansoureh Karimollahi ◽  
◽  
Zahra Tazakori ◽  
Roghiyeh Falahtabar ◽  
Mehdi Ajri-Khameslou ◽  
...  

Background: There are specific challenges regarding the perceptions of families of comatose patients in Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Identifying these perceptions may attract the cooperation of families with nurses and provide better care for patients. This study aimed to explore the perceptions of families of comatose patients in ICUs. Methods: This was a qualitative content-analysis study. Seventeen families with comatose patients were recruited by the purposive sampling technique. The necessary data were generated by semi-structured interviews, continued until data saturation, and concurrently analyzed by an inductive content analysis method. Results: Four main categories were manifested, including shock and disbelief, the effort for adaptation, exhaustion, and burnout, as well as hope and support. Conclusion: The obtained results signified the importance of nurses’ awareness concerning the family members’ perceptions of their comatose patient status in ICUs. The relevant findings reflected the need for nurses to pay attention to the feelings and emotions of the families of these patients.


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