Content Analysis
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Anita Hidayati ◽  
Eko K. Budiardjo ◽  
Betty Purwandari

The Product Owner and Scrum Master are members of the Scrum Team, which play an essential role in Global Software Development. They must have some competencies that can overcome challenges in the global environment. This study aims to develop the competencies of these two roles and explore issues of global competencies. Researchers conducted a literature study to produce a list of competencies and in-depth interviews to explore the issues. Data processing uses content analysis and descriptive statistics. The author compiled questionnaires and generated three issues, then held a Focus Group Discussion for validation. Without reducing the nature of scrum, the consensus of experts had approved 31 competencies for the product owner while 34 for the scrum master. This research enriches and has a global impact on improving Scrum and Global Software Development human capital and IT professionals.

2021 ◽  
P Rathnayake ◽  
D. Soorige ◽  
S.D.I.A. Amarasinghe ◽  
P. Dissanayake ◽  

The construction industry plays a significant role in the economic growth of a country. Nevertheless, the construction industry has created severe adverse environmental impacts. Therefore, green building technologies are implemented to alleviate the adverse effects of the construction industry. Using green materials instead of conventional building materials with high environmental impacts has been identified as one such implementation. However, there seems to be much confusion in defining green building materials. Hence, it is vital to explore the features of green building materials. Therefore, this article investigates green features that qualify the building materials as green building materials. A qualitative research approach was selected as the research methodology, and semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven green building experts. The data was analysed using content analysis. Findings revealed that recycled content, local availability of materials, embodied energy of materials, use of rapidly renewable material, usage of waste material for the production process, material wastage content in the production process and pollution prevention in the production process are the green features. The study results guide the identification of green building materials that can replace the materials with poor environmental sustainability.

2021 ◽  
A.D. Weerasooriya ◽  
B.A.K.S. Perera ◽  
S.D. Gallage ◽  
P.A.P.V.D.S. Disaratna ◽  

Cyber–physical systems (CPS) enable the synergistic integration of virtual models with the physical environment. CPS are being increasingly recognized because of their ability to improve information management in construction projects, make project delivery efficient, and enhance facilities management. The use of virtual models in the construction industry is growing. A quantity surveyor (QS) is responsible for estimating and monitoring construction costs from project inception to completion. The use of CPS could integrate the physical environment with the digital information available to QSs. Hence CPS has the potential to streamline the workflow related to key roles of QSs. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the ability of CPS to facilitate the key roles expected of a QS. The study used a qualitative approach, consisting of 18 semi-structured interviews. The interview findings were analysed using manual content analysis. The literature review revealed the need for CPS in the construction industry and identified the key roles of QSs. The interviewees identified the existing CPS and their supportive applications, technologies and proposed new systems. The study findings provide insights on the reforms required in the key roles of QSs when using CPS.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Atsuyoshi Ishizumi ◽  
Roberta Sutton ◽  
Anthony Mansaray ◽  
Lauren Parmley ◽  
Oliver Eleeza ◽  

Introduction: Community health workers (CHWs) play an integral role in Sierra Leone's health systems strengthening efforts. Our goal was to understand CHWs' experiences of providing immunization and malaria prevention services in urban settings and explore opportunities to optimize their contributions to these services.Methods: In 2018, we conducted an exploratory qualitative assessment in the Western Area Urban district, which covers most of the capital city of Freetown. We purposively selected diverse health facilities (i.e., type, ownership, setting) and recruited CHWs through their supervisors. We conducted eight focus group discussions (FGD) with CHWs, which were audio-recorded. The topics explored included participants' background, responsibilities and priorities of urban CHWs, sources of motivation at work, barriers to CHWs' immunization and malaria prevention activities, and strategies used to address these barriers. The local research team transcribed and translated FGDs into English; then we used qualitative content analysis to identify themes.Results: Four themes emerged from the qualitative content analysis: (1) pride, compassion, recognition, and personal benefits are important motivating factors to keep working as CHWs; (2) diverse health responsibilities and competing priorities result in overburdening of CHWs; (3) health system- and community-level barriers negatively affect CHWs' activities and motivation; (4) CHWs use context-specific strategies to address challenges in their work but require further support.Conclusion: Focused support for CHWs is needed to optimize their contributions to immunization and malaria prevention activities. Such interventions should be coupled with systems-level efforts to address the structural barriers that negatively affect CHWs' overall work and motivation, such as the shortage of work supplies and the lack of promised financial support.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Nicolas Schippel ◽  
Gloria Dust ◽  
Christian von Reeken ◽  
Raymond Voltz ◽  
Julia Strupp ◽  

Abstract Objective Burdensome transitions are typically defined as having a transition in the last three days or multiple hospitalizations in the last three months of life, which is seldom verified with qualitative accounts from persons concerned. This study analyses types and frequencies of transitions in the last year of life and indicators of burdensome transitions from the perspective of bereaved relatives. Method Cross-sectional explanatory mixed-methods study with 351 surveyed and 41 interviewed bereaved relatives in a German urban area. Frequencies, t-tests, and Spearman correlations were computed for quantitative data. Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis with provisional and descriptive coding/subcoding. Results Transitions rise sharply during the last year of life. 8.2% of patients experience a transition in the last three days and 7.8% three or more hospitalizations in the last three months of life. An empathetic way of telling patients about the prospect of death is associated with fewer transitions in the last month of life (r = 0.185, p = 0.046). Professionals being aware of the preferred place of death corresponds to fewer hospitalizations in the last three months of life (1.28 vs. 0.97, p = 0.021). Qualitative data do not confirm that burden in transitions is linked to having transitions in the last three days or multiple hospitalizations in the last three months of life. Burden is associated with (1) late and non-empathetic communication about the prospect of death, (2) not coordinating care across settings, and (3) not considering patients’ preferences. Significance of results Time of occurrence and frequency appear to be imperfect proxies for burdensome transitions. The subjective burden seems to be associated rather with insufficient information, preparation, and management of transitions.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (23) ◽  
pp. 13340
Deborah Agostino ◽  
Marco Brambilla ◽  
Silvio Pavanetto ◽  
Paola Riva

In the cultural tourism field, there has been an increasing interest in adopting data-driven approaches that are aimed at measuring the service quality dimensions through online reviews. To date, studies measuring quality dimensions in cultural tourism settings through content analysis of online user-generated reviews are mainly based on manual approaches. When the content analysis is automated, these studies do not compare different analytical approaches. Our paper enters this field by comparing two different automated content analysis approaches to evaluate which of the two is more adequate for assessing the quality dimensions through user-generated reviews in an empirical setting of 100 Italian museums. Specifically, we compare a ‘top-down’ content analysis approach that is based on a supervised classification built on policy makers’ guidelines and a ‘bottom-up’ approach that is based on an unsupervised topic model of the online words of reviewers. The resulting museum quality dimensions are compared, showing that the ‘bottom-up’ approach reveals additional quality dimensions compared with those obtained through the ‘top-down’ approach. The misalignment of the results of the ‘top-down’ and ‘bottom-up’ approaches to quality evaluation for museums enhances the critical discussion on the contribution that data analytics can offer to support decision making in cultural tourism.

Diagnosis ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Ava L. Liberman ◽  
Natalie T. Cheng ◽  
Benjamin W. Friedman ◽  
Maya T. Gerstein ◽  
Khadean Moncrieffe ◽  

Abstract Objectives We sought to understand the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of emergency medicine (EM) physicians towards non-specific neurological conditions and the use of clinical decision support (CDS) to improve diagnostic accuracy. Methods We conducted semi-structured interviews of EM physicians at four emergency departments (EDs) affiliated with a single US healthcare system. Interviews were conducted until thematic saturation was achieved. Conventional content analysis was used to identify themes related to EM physicians’ perspectives on acute diagnostic neurology; directed content analysis was used to explore views regarding CDS. Each interview transcript was independently coded by two researchers using an iteratively refined codebook with consensus-based resolution of coding differences. Results We identified two domains regarding diagnostic safety: (1) challenges unique to neurological complaints and (2) challenges in EM more broadly. Themes relevant to neurology included: (1) knowledge gaps and uncertainty, (2) skepticism about neurology, (3) comfort with basic as opposed to detailed neurological examination, and (4) comfort with non-neurological diseases. Themes relevant to diagnostic decision making in the ED included: (1) cognitive biases, (2) ED system/environmental issues, (3) patient barriers, (4) comfort with diagnostic uncertainty, and (5) concerns regarding diagnostic error identification and measurement. Most participating EM physicians were enthusiastic about the potential for well-designed CDS to improve diagnostic accuracy for non-specific neurological complaints. Conclusions Physicians identified diagnostic challenges unique to neurological diseases as well as issues related more generally to diagnostic accuracy in EM. These physician-reported issues should be accounted for when designing interventions to improve ED diagnostic accuracy.

Dementia ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. 147130122110539
Marit Mjørud ◽  
Janne Røsvik

Introduction Person-centred care is a philosophy rather than a method ready for implementation and utilization in daily clinical work. Internationally, few methods for person-centred care have been widely adopted in clinical dementia care practice. In Norway, the VIPS practice model is one that is commonly used for the implementation and use of person-centred care in primary healthcare. Method Nursing home physicians, managers and leaders in the municipalities, care institutions and domestic nursing care services were eligible for inclusion if their workplace had implemented and used the VIPS practice model for a minimum of 12 months. Individual interviews were conducted via Facetime, Skype or telephone and analysed with qualitative content analysis. Findings In all, 20 respondents were included: one manager of health and care services in the municipality, six managers and leaders working in domestic care or daytime activity centres and 10 managers/leaders and three physicians working in nursing homes. Two global categories emerged: category 1: Change in staff’s professional reasoning with two sub-categories: (a) an enhanced professional level in discussions and (b) a change in focus from task to person; and category 2: Changes in the clinical work, with three sub-categories: (a) effective interventions, (b) a person-centred work environment and (c) changes in cooperation between stakeholders. Conclusion Regular use of the VIPS practice model appeared to change the work culture for the benefit of both service users and frontline staff. Increased cooperation between frontline staff, nurses, physicians and next of kin was described. Staff were more focused on the needs of the service users, which resulted in care interventions tailored to the needs of the individual with dementia, loyalty to care plans and fewer complaints from next of kin.

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Joseph Olorunfemi Akande ◽  
Sulaiman Olusegun Atiku

Purpose This study aims to examine the accounting skills required in Industry 4.0 to assist higher education institutions in developing Industry 4.0 accountants in Namibia. Design/methodology/approach This study adopted a qualitative approach for data collection and analysis. The participants (accountants and finance consultants) were selected using a purposive sampling technique. A self-administered questionnaire (open-ended) was administered to 120 participants. Useful information was retrieved from 99 participants in the participating accounting firms in Namibia. The data was analyzed using non-numerical content analysis via Atlas.ti, version 9.0. Findings Findings revealed the need to teach soft, technical and digital skills by higher education institutions in Namibia to enhance accounting graduates’ employability in Industry 4.0. The practical implication for higher education in Namibia is to do more in curriculum retooling. Originality/value There is a shortage of literature on the competency framework for Industry 4.0 accountants, particularly in Namibia. The outcomes of this study contribute to the extant literature and assist higher education institutions with helpful information for accounting programs review and enhance graduates’ employability in Namibia.

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