Perceived Risk
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2021 ◽  
pp. tobaccocontrol-2021-056833
Dana Mowls Carroll ◽  
Katelyn M Tessier ◽  
K Michael Cummings ◽  
Richard J O'Connor ◽  
Sarah Reisinger ◽  

BackgroundWhile evidence demonstrates that the industry’s marketing of cigarettes with higher filter ventilation (FV) misleads adults about their health risks, there is no research on the relationships between FV, risk perceptions and smoking trajectories among youth (ages 12–17) and young adults (ages 18–24).MethodsData on FV levels of major US cigarette brands/sub-brands were merged with the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study to examine whether FV level in cigarettes used by wave 1 youth/young adults (n=1970) predicted continued smoking at waves 2–4, and whether those relationships were mediated by perceived risk of their cigarette brand. FV was modelled based on tertiles (0.2%–11.8%, low; 11.9%–23.2%, moderate; 23.3%–61.1%, high) to predict daily smoking, past 30-day smoking and change in number of days smoking at successive waves.ResultsThe odds of perceiving one’s brand as less harmful than other cigarette brands was 2.21 times higher in the high versus low FV group (p=0.0146). Relationships between FV and smoking outcomes at successive waves were non-significant (all p>0.05).ConclusionYouth and young adults who use higher FV cigarettes perceived their brand as less harmful compared with other brands. However, level of FV was not associated with continued smoking.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Can Wang ◽  
Fangyu Chen ◽  
Feiteng Yi ◽  
Yongchang Wei

With the development of Internet technology, e-commerce platforms have emerged one after another, and the competition of the fruit e-commerce market is increasingly intensified. How to boost customer demand by improving their purchase intention has become a key issue. The study identified the critical conditions leading to high purchase intention of fruits through fuzzy-set qualitative comparative analysis. The empirical analysis was conducted based on an online questionnaire of 344 Internet users. The results reveal that high purchase intention comes from high fruit quality, high fruit price concessions and supply service, and low perceived risk (peripheral conditions). In addition, high purchase intention can also be realized from high fruit quality, high fruit price concessions, high supply service, and high website information quality (peripheral conditions). This study provides more nuanced thinking of how to improve online purchase intention of fruits.

Pathogens ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1562
Saul Lozano ◽  
Jonathan Day ◽  
Lilyana Ortega ◽  
Maggie Silver ◽  
Roxanne Connelly

The United States experienced local transmission of West Nile Virus (WNV) for the first time in 1999, and Zika Virus (ZIKV) in 2016. These introductions captured the public’s attention in varying degrees. The research presented here analyzes the disproportional perception of ZIKV risk compared to WNV transmission risk, by the public and vector control personnel. The risk perception of vector control was measured through purposive sampled interviews (24 interviews in 13 states; May 2020–June 2021), while the public’s perception was estimated from news publications (January 2000–December 2020), and Google searches (January 2004–December 2020). Over time, we observed a decrease in the frequency of press reporting and Google searches of both viruses with decreasing annual peaks in the summer. The highest peak of ZIKV news, and searches, surpassed that of WNV. We observed clear differences in the contents of the headlines for both viruses. We propose that the main reason in risk perception differences between the viruses were psychological. Zika infections (mosquito-borne and sexually transmitted) can result in devastating symptoms in fetuses and newborns, observations that frequently appeared in ZIKV-related headlines. Our results highlight the likely influence the news media has on risk perception and the need for public health agencies to play active roles in the conversation, helping disseminate timely and accurate information. Understanding the factors that shape risk perceptions of vector-borne diseases will hopefully lead to better use of resources by providing better guidance.

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (11) ◽  
pp. 441-449
Sutarminingsih . ◽  
Lukman M Baga ◽  
Imam Teguh Saptono

The development of internet users and technology has influenced the banking industry to transform its services towards digital. XYZ Sharia Bank is one of the banks that implements a digital banking service strategy through mobile banking. The purpose of this study is to describe the characteristics of mobile banking users, then analyze what influences the behavioral intentions of users in increasing the intensity of mobile banking use, and provide recommendations for development strategies for Islamic Bank XYZ to increase the intensity of mobile banking use. The results of this study qualitatively indicate that the characteristics of XYZ Islamic Bank mobile banking users are dominated by millennial generation males. XYZ Syariah Bank is the choice for mobile banking services because of its practical and flexible use. In addition to general banking transactions, XYZ Syariah Bank mobile banking is also an option because it provides services to complement people's lifestyles, namely for digital wallet refills, online shopping payments through the marketplace/e-commerce. The results of the research quantitatively indicate that all of the variables studied, namely perceived usefulness, ease of use, interaction needs, perceived risk, perceived cost of use, trustworthiness, credibility, and compatibility with lifestyle and needs have a significant influence on the intensity of using Islamic Bank mobile banking XYZ, where the biggest factor in influencing the intensity of the use of XYZ Islamic Bank's mobile banking is compatibility with lifestyle and needs. Keywords: Digital Banking, Mobile Banking, Intensity of Using, Sharia Bank.

2021 ◽  
Margaret A. Malone ◽  
Gregorio de Chevalier ◽  
Christopher J. Whelan ◽  
Joel S. Brown

Abstract Degradation of coral reef habitats changes the abundance and community composition of fishes due in part to changes in the ecology of fear. The ecology of fear sees the predator-prey system as a dynamic game of behavioral responses to perceived risk with population and community level consequences. We measure spatial variation in predation risk as landscapes of fear. We consider changes in predation risk with habitat quality and examine the effects of fear on coral reefs in Kāne‘ohe Bay, O‘ahu, Hawai‘i. First, we associate fish and benthic communities on patch reefs with varying degradation due to invasive algae (Euchema spp. and Kappaphycus spp.). Next, we quantify the spatio-temporal variation of risk (reefscape of fear) of a common Hawaiian fish (saddle wrasse, hīnālea lau wili, Thalassoma duperrey) across reefs of varying degradation. Finally, we assess the tradeoffs in resource availability and predation risk on these reefs. At the scale of whole reefs, saddle wrasse responded to perceived risk. Intensity of patch use (measured by giving-up densities) by wrasse indicated risky reefs. Such reefs differed in benthic and fish community composition. We demonstrated the impact of an altered reefscape of fear due to habitat degradation. Habitat degradation seems to influence the tradeoff between resource availability and safety. From wrasse abundances and their patch use behavior we can classify the reefs into categories based on risk and resource availability. Allowing fish to reveal their perceptions of habitat qualities through their behaviors provides critical information for assessing and monitoring reefs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 231-240
Fauzia Nur Laili ◽  
Lilik Wahyudi

The purpose of the study is to determine the impact of trust antecedents on the intent of transactions in mHealth applications. The antecedents of trust included perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness, perceived quality, perceived safety, and perceived Covid 19 risks. Perceived risks of COVID19 were also examined for moderating effects on the relationship between trust and m-Health transaction intention. The study used a quantitative method with a survey approach. Our surveys are distributed online via the Lime Survey app. 253 respondents responded to the questionnaire according to the criteria. Results showed that the antecedents that had a significant impact on trust were perceived usefulness (P = 0.012), perceived quality (P = 0.002), and perceived safety (P = 0.000). On the other hand, the perceived ease of use (P = 0.566) and the perceived risk (P = 0.871) did not significantly affect trust. Trust (P = 0.000) and perceived risks of COVID19 (P = 0.011) directly affect m-Health transaction intention. The study also found that the perceived risk of COVID19 did not impact the consumer trust in m-Health but directly impacted transaction intention.

Shihabul Islam ◽  
Shah Ehsan Habib

Background: Rohingyas living in refugee camps of Bangladesh have been identified as a high-risk group for HIV transmission. This study aimed to assess gender differences in risk perception towards HIV/AIDS among Rohingyas in Cox’s Bazar. Methods: A cross-sectional design was adopted to assess the level of risk perception towards HIV/AIDS. This analysis utilizes data from a survey of 130 Rohingya people through face-to-face interviews utilizing a 28-item HIV-Knowledge Questionnaire. A systematic sampling technique was used to accomplish data collection survey. Analyzing was done by SPSS 25. Results: Only 41.8% of males and 58.2% of females had a good knowledge score (8 out of 11 items) regarding the transmission of HIV. Knowledge is significantly associated with female gender (χ2 = 8.927, p < 0.005). Gender differences were also significantly associated with the perceived risk of contracting HIV/AIDS in the future (p < 0.001). When rank averages were investigated, perceived risk of contracting HIV/AIDS score of the female participants (mean rank = 76.71) appeared to be higher compared to the score of male participants (mean rank = 54.29). Conclusion: Female Rohingyas perceive a higher risk of contracting HIV/AIDS than male Rohingyas. Programs should address harmful gender norms, HIV testing and education emphasizing the risks involved in transactional sex within the camps.

Yi Yang ◽  
Ru-De Liu ◽  
Yi Ding ◽  
Jia Wang ◽  
Wei Hong ◽  

This study aimed to explore cross-country differences in the characteristics and determinations of self–other risk perceptions of the COVID-19 pandemic. We distinguished perceived risk to self from perceived risk to others and subdivided risk perceptions into three levels: personal, group, and societal. We focused on the differential impact of multiple communication channels (i.e., interpersonal communication, traditional media exposure, and new media exposure) on risk perceptions at the three levels. A sample of 790 college students completed self-report online questionnaires from May to June 2020, including 498 in China and 292 in the United States. The results showed an “ascending pattern,” revealing that participants perceived higher levels of risk to others than to themselves. In addition, U.S. college students perceived higher risks of COVID-19 than Chinese college students at all levels. As for the relations between communication and risk perceptions, the results revealed that interpersonal communication and traditional media exposure were more effective with Chinese participants, whereas new media exposure was more effective with U.S. participants. Specifically, interpersonal communication was positively associated with risk perceptions at three levels, and the magnitude of the effect was higher in the Chinese group than in the U.S. group. Traditional media exposure increased societal risk perception only for Chinese college students, and new media exposure increased societal risk perception only for U.S. college students. Our findings provide theoretical implications for the characteristics and forming mechanisms of risk perceptions and also provide practical implications for policymakers in the two countries to implement effective measures to foster individuals’ risk perceptions in relation to preventive behaviors.

Land ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (12) ◽  
pp. 1303
Antonia Sohns ◽  
Gordon M. Hickey ◽  
Jasper R. de Vries ◽  
Owen Temby

Trust has been identified as a central characteristic of successful natural resource management (NRM), particularly in the context of implementing participatory approaches to stakeholder engagement. Trust is, however, a multi-dimensional and multi-level concept that is known to evolve recursively through time, challenging efforts to empirically measure its impact on collaboration in different NRM settings. In this communication we identify some of the challenges associated with conceptualizing and operationalizing trust in NRM field research, and pay particular attention to the inter-relationships between the concepts of trust, perceived risk and control due to their multi-dimensional and interacting roles in inter-organizational collaboration. The challenge of studying trust begins with its conceptualization, which impacts the terminology being used, thereby affecting the subsequent operationalization of trust in survey and interview measures, and the interpretation of these measures by engaged stakeholders. Building from this understanding, we highlight some of the key methodological considerations, including how trust is being conceptualized and how the associated measures are being developed, deployed, and validated in order to facilitate cross-context and cross-level comparisons. Until these key methodological issues are overcome, the nuanced roles of trust in NRM will remain unclear.

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