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2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Author(s):  
Oliver Graupner ◽  
Christina Ried ◽  
Nadia K. Wildner ◽  
Javier U. Ortiz ◽  
Bettina Kuschel ◽  
...  

Abstract Objectives An association between fetal growth restriction (FGR) and increased predisposition to cardiovascular disease (CVD) is suggested. The aim of this study was to evaluate subclinical signs of fetal cardiac remodeling in late-onset small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and growth-restricted fetuses using two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2D-STE). Methods This is a prospective cohort study, including 117 late-onset (≥32 weeks) SGA (birthweight≤10th centile) fetuses and 102 gestational age matched controls. A subgroup analysis was performed: FGR was defined based on either BW (<third centile) or the presence of feto-maternal Doppler abnormalities, the remaining cases were called SGA centile 3–10. 2D-STE based myocardial deformation analyses included longitudinal peak systolic strain (LPSS) and strain rate (LSR) of the global left (LV) or right (RV) ventricle and its individual segments. Results Global and segmental LPSS and LSR values showed no significant difference between late-onset SGA and control fetuses for both ventricles (p>0.05). Regarding global and segmental LPSS and LSR values of LV/RV, subgroup analysis revealed no significant difference between the FGR (n=81), SGA centile 3–10 (n=36) and control group. Conclusions A mild degree of placental dysfunction seems not to influence myocardial deformation properties measured by 2D-STE.


Author(s):  
Wenhao Luo ◽  
Ye Li

IntroductionBoth Dmab and ZA have been widely used in the prevention and treatment of bone-related diseases, while which drug is an optimal treatment in terms of safety and efficacy remains controversial.Material and methodsPubMed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Central Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov were systematically searched up to 1st January 2021, and were evaluated by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Randomized controlled trials comparing Dmab versus ZA in patients with bone-related diseases were included.ResultsA total of 13 studies involving 21042 participants were included. The incidence of total adverse events was significantly lower in patients receiving Dmab treatment than in those undergoing ZA treatment(OR= 0.84, 95% CI = 0.75–0.94, P = 0.003). 9 trials comparing Dmab with ZA further showed that Dmab was significantly better than ZA in controlling serious adverse events (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.85–0.99, P = 0.02). Compared to ZA, Dmab was correlated with a lower incidence of skeletal-related events (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.70–0.85, P = 0.00001). However, no significant difference was found in the rate of infection events between Dmab and ZA (OR = 1.06, 95% CI = 0.93–1.20, P =0.39).ConclusionsThis study demonstrated superiority of Dmab over ZA in treating bone-related diseases in terms of safety and efficacy.


Author(s):  
Sławomir Grzesiak ◽  
Jarosław Rychlik ◽  
Agnieszka Nowogrodzka

Prison as the place of work of the Prison Service staff is a specific workplace due to both the nature of the prison community as well as the infrastructural and architectural solutions deployed to protect prison officers. Considering the spatial features of a penitentiary unit and their role in the due performance of Prison Service tasks, it seems quite relevant to seek an answer to the question: How does the physical space of a prison contribute to the stress experienced by prison officers? The issue in question is rooted in M. Mendel’s concept of pedagogy of place, symbolic interactionism and S. Hobfoll’s conservation of resources theory. Inquiry into a research problem of this kind seems reasonable taking into account the infrastructural and spatial aspects of the surroundings that can be potential stress drivers. In April 2021, a group of 58 prison officers were surveyed based on the Stress Perception Questionnaire and the author’s questionnaire. Relationships between the variables have been established through the use of correlation, significant difference test and variance analysis. The results revealed that the essential spatial characteristics of a penitentiary unit associated with the perception of stress by Prison Service staff are those features that relate to the penitentiary unit’s functional aspects covering the specific technical and protective safeguards. These results formed a premise for designating higher-risk staff groups, with regard to which preventive programmes aimed at counteracting the negative effects of stress experience should be considered


2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
Author(s):  
A. Hussain ◽  
A. A. Khan

Abstract Wildlife trade is a profitable economic activity. Birds are among the most heavily traded animals worldwide, with numerous species threatened by pet trade. The present case study was stretched for period of one year to find out the status of wild birds’ trade in Bannu and Dera Ismael Khan Divisions. The study was aimed to find out the types of species, commercial prices of bird, trade routes, overall income generated from birds’ trade and the status of dealers whether licensed or not. Bimonthly visits were conducted to interview 52 bird dealers/pet shops owners/venders (23 in Dera Ismael Khan and 29 in Bannu). A sum of 16 conceivable sites were visited during the study period. Out of these, 8 sites were located in Dera Ismael Khan and 8 sites in Bannu Division. The highest priced species was Demoiselle crane (Grus virgo) and the lowest priced species was house sparrow (Passer domesticus). Total number of species traded in both regions were 8 and 14 while the income generated by bird trade was amounting to PkR 1,322,200 and 7,128,950 in Dera Ismael Khan and Bannu respectively. Majority of the birds were trapped locally with the exception of few from adjacent areas. Commercial activity led by illegal bird traders was found 75% and 100% species in Dera Ismael Khan and Bannu respectively. There was no significant difference between prices of birds, number of species sold and income generated by bird trade in two divisions.


Author(s):  
Curtis R Budden ◽  
Francesca Rannard ◽  
Joanna Mennie ◽  
Neil Bulstrode

Abstract Background Surgical trainees worldwide have been thrust into a period of uncertainty, with respect to the implications COVID-19 pandemic will have on their roles, training, and future career prospects. It is currently unclear how plastic surgery trainees are being affected by COVID-19. This study examined the experience of plastic surgery trainees in Canada, the UK, and Australia to determine trainee roles during the early COVID-19 emergency response and how training changed during this time. Methods A cross-sectional survey-based study was designed for plastic surgery trainees in the UK, Canada and Australia. In total, 110 trainees responded to the survey. Statistical tests were conducted to determine differences in responses, based on year of training and country of residence. Results In total, 9.7% (10/103) of respondents reported being deployed to cover another service. There was a significant difference between redeployment based on country (p = 0.001). Within the UK group, 28.9% of respondents were redeployed. For trainees not deployed, 95.5% (85/89) reported that there has been a reduction in operative volume. Ninety-seven (94.1%) respondents reported that there were ongoing teaching activities offered by their program. The majority of trainees (66.4%) were concerned about their training. There was a significant difference between overall concern and country (p < 0.05). Conclusion In these unprecedented times, training programs in plastic surgery should be aware of the major impact that COVID-19 has had on trainees and will have on their training. The majority of plastic surgery trainees have experienced a reduction in surgical exposure but have maintained some form of regular teaching.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Wenjuan Zhang ◽  
Zhaozhao Liu ◽  
Manman Liu ◽  
Jiaheng Li ◽  
Yichun Guan

Abstract Background The normal physiological function of LH requires a certain concentration range, but because of pituitary desensitization, even on the HCG day, endogenous levels of LH are low in the follicular-phase long protocol. So our study aimed to determine whether it is necessary to monitor serum LH concentrations and to determine whether there is an optimal LH range to achieve the desired clinical outcome. Methods A retrospective cohort study included 4503 cycles of in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) units from January 1, 2016, to June 30, 2019, in a single department. The main outcome measures included retrieved eggs, available embryos, live birth rate. Results Divided the LHHCG into five groups: Group A (LH ≤ 0.5), Group B (0.5 IU/L < LH ≤ 1.2 IU/L), Group C (1.2 IU/L < LH ≤ 2.0 IU/L), Group D (2.0 IU/L < LH ≤ 5.0 IU/L), Group E (LH > 5 IU/L). In terms of the numbers of retrieved eggs, embryos, high-quality embryos and diploid fertilized oocytes, an increase of the LHHCG level showed a trend of a gradual decrease. However, there was no significant difference in clinical outcomes among the groups.By adjusting for confounding factors, with an increase in LHHCG, the number of retrieved eggs decreased. Conclusion In the follicular-phase long protocol among young women, monitoring of LHHCG are recommended in the clinical guidelines. What’s more, those who undergo Preimplantation Genetic Testing(PGT) may benefit more when the LH level is controlled within a certain range.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Zhao Hu ◽  
Baohua Zheng ◽  
Atipatsa Chiwanda Kaminga ◽  
Huilan Xu

Abstract Background Elderly residents in nursing homes are at high risk for dysphagia. However, the prevalence estimates of this condition and its risk factors among this population were inconsistent. Objective To estimate the prevalence of dysphagia and examine its risk factors among the elderly in nursing homes. Methods Electronic database of PubMed, Web of science, Embase for English language, Wangfang, VIP and CNKI for Chinese language were systematically searched to identify relevant observational studies published not later than July 4, 2021. Studies conducted in nursing homes and reported dysphagia assessment methods were included. Results In total, 43 studies involving 56,746 participants were included in this systematic review and meta-Analysis. The overall pooled crude prevalence of dysphagia was 35.9% (95%CI: 29.0%, 43.4%), with high heterogeneity (I2 = 99.5%). There was a statistically significant difference in prevalence estimates with respect to study locations, methods of assessment of dysphagia, dysphagia assessment staff, representativeness of samples, and validity of assessment tools. Pooled estimates indicated that male (OR = 1.13, 95%CI: 1.00, 1.27), cognitive impairment (OR = 2.47, 95%CI: 1.59, 3.84), functional limitation (OR = 2.59, 95% CI: 1.75, 3.84), cerebrovascular disease (OR = 2.90, 95%CI: 1.73,4.87), dementia (OR = 1.50, 95%CI: 1.15, 1.96) and Parkinson’s disease (OR = 1.81, 95%CI: 1.06, 3.08) were significant risk factors for dysphagia. Conclusions The prevalence of dysphagia in nursing homes is relatively high, and with high heterogeneity. Also, many factors were associated with the risk of dysphagia. Further research is needed to identify strategies for management and interventions targeted at these disorders in this population.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sultan Jarrar ◽  
Mohammed M. Al Barbarawi ◽  
Suleiman S. Daoud ◽  
Yaman B. Ahmed ◽  
Leen M Al-Kraimeen ◽  
...  

Abstract Background As the incidence of intracranial infections increase due to diagnostic procedures improvement, more real-life data is needed to reach a more solid informed management approach. This study aims to describe and analyse clinical features of intracranial abscesses patients treated at a tertiary hospital in North Jordan during a 10-year period. Methods We retrospectively identified 37 patients treated at King Abdullah University Hospital (KAUH) from 2011 to 2020 in Irbid, North Jordan. Treatment consisted of either aspiration, open craniotomy excision (OCE) or conservative therapy. Extracted variables included demographic data such (age, gender), clinical presentation, lab findings, radiological findings as well as management plan. Retrieved data was compared between the patients who underwent a single operation and those who underwent reoperation after the initial procedure. Results Thirty-seven patients with 55 intracerebral abscesses were identified, 29 of whom had intraparenchymal brain abscesses, 4 patients had epidural empyema, and 4 had subdural empyema. The mean age was 28.8 (± 20.7) years, with a male predominance (78.4%). Sixteen patients underwent open craniotomy excision (OCE), 14 patients were treated by aspiration and 7 patients were treated conservatively. When comparing the single operation and the reoperation groups, there was no statistically significant difference across variables. Conclusion Our study presents valuable insight from a tertiary hospital in north Jordan on intracranial abscesses and empyemas. Our findings confirm that good recovery can be established after aspiration or OCE in the majority of patients. Similar results were obtained when comparing the SOP and the ROP groups.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Wenkuan Liu ◽  
Li Zhang ◽  
Yong Cai ◽  
Dehui Chen ◽  
Shuyan Qiu ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: Human adenovirus type 21 (HAdV-21) is an important member of HAdV species B, but our understanding of this type is limited. Methods: We screened HAdV and 17 other common respiratory pathogens for 1,704 pediatric patients (≤14 years old) hospitalized with acute respiratory illness in Guangzhou, China in 2019. HAdV-21 infections were further confirmed by molecular typing from HAdV-positive patients, and their clinical manifestations, genomes, infectivity and pathogenicity in vitro were analyzed.Results: 151 of 1,704 cases (8.9%) were positive for HAdV, making it the third most frequently detected pathogen. Two sporadic HAdV-21 infections were identified in June and September. Both HAdV-21-positive patients presented with severe lower respiratory illness and had similar initial symptoms at onset of illness. The genome structure of HAdV-21 was found to be similar to that of other members of HAdV species B. The phylogenetic analysis showed that it was closely related to HAdV-B21 strain BB/201903 (MN686206) isolated in Bengbu, China in 2019, suggesting the possibility of the same source, and attention need to be paid to its prevention and control. In vitro, the infectivity and pathogenicity of HAdV-21 were lower than the main epidemic types 7 and 3. Plaques formed by HAdV-21, -7, and -3 were significantly different in shape and size (p < 0.05), with plaques formed by HAdV-21 being the smallest and with poorly defined edges. There was no significant difference between the plaques of the HAdV-21 isolates (p > 0.05). Conclusions: This study provides an important reference for the in-depth understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenicity of HAdV-21, and suggests the necessity of HAdV-21 research, prevention and control.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Hanieh Mohajjel Shoja ◽  
Taha Khezriani ◽  
Maryam Kolahi ◽  
Elham Elham Mohajel Kazemi ◽  
Milad Yazdi

Abstract Crops in arid and semi-arid regions are exposed to adverse environmental factors such as drought. Experiments were conducted to determine the morphologic and anatomic response of drought-susceptible and tolerant varieties of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) under drought conditions (100%, 75%, 50%, 25% of field capacity). To investigate the role of antioxidant enzyme, catalase gene expression was examined by real-time RT-qPCR and microarray studies of the catalase gene in tomatoes under stress examined utilizing bioinformatics. The results showed significant morphological changes under drought conditions. Anatomical studies revealed that CaljN3 is more resistant than SuperstrainB varieties under drought stress. Relative expression of the CAT1 gene did not show any significant difference in both Caljn3 and SuperstrainB varieties based on quantitative Real-Time PCR, under drought stress. The bioinformatics results from microarray analysis revealed that this gene did not show a significant difference in expression in any of the cultivars and under any of the stresses. This gene is in the conserve cluster, a cluster with 118 members and a z score of 14.26148. This showed that this cluster is fully protected between two susceptible and tolerant varieties. The enrichment gene of this cluster did not show any significant intracellular pathways. It appears that in response to stress, an activating mechanism other than catalase is necessary. The fight against oxidative stress may begin one step before that of the enzymes and seeks to combat the stressor by activating proteins, especially channels, pumps and some cellular messengers.


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