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2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Fake certificates pose a severe problem in today's world; they vouch for an individual's false skillset and put an organization's reputation at risk. Moreover, the existing verification process is performed in a centralized manner, often too cumbersome and time-consuming to the end-user, lacking transparency in the educational institutions' Issuance of certificates. Of-late, blockchain is a promising technology that provides transparent, secure, and reliable features, which offers solutions to the education sector. This paper provides the solution to the educational certification problem by employing the blockchain network. We proposed a permissioned blockchain network that identifies, authenticates the Issuer, adequate verification, securely shares academic records to the recipients, and stores the certificate credentials in the blockchain in a distributed manner.

L.-J. Kramp ◽  
M. Mathiak ◽  
H.-M. Behrens ◽  
F. W. Schäfer ◽  
M. van Mackelenbergh ◽  

Abstract Background We explored the hypothesis that high-quality standards in diagnostic mammography can lead to an early diagnosis of breast cancers and identifies at risk populations outside screening programs. The histopathological features and distribution of the TNM classification were examined in relation to patient age in a large group of women with breast cancers participating in the Quality Assured Mamma Diagnostic (QuaMaDi) program of the state of Schleswig–Holstein. Patients and methods Surgical pathological reports were studied for clinicopathological characteristics, receptor status, molecular subtype and tumor stage. The analysis was conducted by dividing the study population into three age groups: women under 50 years (pre-screening), 50–69 years (peri-screening) and over 70 years (post-screening). Results 7.111 biopsies and 2.887 resection specimens were included. Breast cancer was diagnosed in 4.241 (59.7%) cases, one fourth of them in women < 50 years. Elderly women (> 70 years) had more well-differentiated, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and HER2-negative carcinomas, whereas younger women (< 50 years) tended to have more poorly differentiated, ER negative, and HER2-positive carcinomas. 47% of breast carcinoma were luminal B tumors and were most common regardless of age. 70.4% of resected specimen had pT1 stage. Nodal negative were 71.2%. Conclusion In QuaMaDi breast cancer was diagnosed at an early and potentially curable stage of the disease due to high-quality standards in diagnostic mammography. In addition, regardless of age, an increased number of prognostically unfavorable molecular subtypes were detected. Thus, QuaMaDi helps to identify at risk populations. QuaMaDi significantly improves diagnostic mammography and complements mammography screening programs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (3) ◽  
pp. 47-65
Evi Schmid ◽  
Beate Jørstad ◽  
Gøril Stokke Nordlie

This article examines characteristics, practices and conditions within schools that enable vulnerable students to succeed in school. Research suggests that factors related to structure, educational organisation or the climate within schools may play a part in either pushing out or holding on to students whose personal characteristics may put them at risk of dropping out. The study is based on 25 qualitative interviews with students in the second year of vocational education and training. All the students had a low grade point average from lower secondary school, and the majority had an immigrant background from Africa or Asia. The analysis shows that practice-oriented learning from authentic work tasks provided meaningful connections between schoolwork and students’ career choices and opportunities to experience success and mastery. Furthermore, positive expectations and the active support of teachers as well as mutual motivation and support among classmates contributed to students’ sense of belonging at school. The study discusses the importance of schools supporting less school-oriented young people in connecting and identifying with school, both with the social environment and with the educational content and learning methods.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
A. Mark Clarfield ◽  
Tzvi Dwolatzky

The distribution of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has reached pandemic proportions. While COVID-19 can affect anyone, it is particularly hazardous for those with “co-morbidities.” Older age is an especially strong and independent risk factor for hospital and ICU admission, mechanical ventilation and death. Health systems must protect persons at any age while paying particular attention to those with risk factors. However, essential freedoms must be respected and social/psychological needs met for those shielded. The example of the older population in Israel may provide interesting public health lessons. Relatively speaking, Israel is a demographically young country, with only 11.5% of its population 65 years and older as compared with the OECD average of &gt;17%. As well, a lower proportion of older persons is in long-term institutions in Israel than in most other OECD countries. The initiation of a national program to protect older residents of nursing homes and more latterly, a successful vaccine program has resulted in relatively low rates of serious COVID-19 related disease and mortality in Israel. However, the global situation remains unstable and the older population remains at risk. The rollout of efficacious vaccines is in progress but it will probably take years to cover the world's population, especially those living in low- and middle-income countries. Every effort must be made not to leave these poorer countries behind. Marrying the principles of public health (care of the population) with those of geriatric medicine (care of the older individual) offers the best way forward.

2021 ◽  
Amanda K. Galambas ◽  
Walter F. Krengel ◽  
Cheryl E. Parker ◽  
Ana Maria Kolenko ◽  
Samuel R. Browd ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 875647932110519
Omar Mohammed ◽  
Ahmed Magdy ◽  
Ahmed Askalany ◽  
Sondos Salem ◽  
Mazen Abdel-Rasheed ◽  

Objective: Preeclampsia accounts for 15% of maternal deaths and may cause fetal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this research was to evaluate the efficacy of maternal uterine artery Doppler versus serum beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG), during the first trimester, in predicting preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). Materials and Methods: In a convenient sample of 388 pregnant women, uterine artery resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) were assessed, and serum β-hCG level was measured at 11 to 13 weeks of gestation. The patients’ maternal blood pressure and fetal growth were monitored. Results: The patients with preeclampsia (n = 58) showed a significant uterine RI and PI increase with a significant β-hCG decrease compared with the normotensive patients (n = 330). The specificity of uterine PI and RI to predict preeclampsia and IUGR is higher than that of β-hCG. However, the sensitivity of combined diagnostic tools is higher than the singular use of these diagnostic tests. Conclusion: Uterine artery Doppler may be better than serum β-hCG in predicting preeclampsia and IUGR. However, combined diagnostic techniques may be better to screen at-risk patients.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Giacomo Ciocca ◽  
Tommaso B. Jannini ◽  
Michele Ribolsi ◽  
Rodolfo Rossi ◽  
Cinzia Niolu ◽  

A considerable body of literature reports that individuals with psychotic disorders often suffer from sexual dysfunctions (SDs), with these representing a major unmet need. Long-term antipsychotic drug treatment may be the main cause for SDs in psychotic patients, through a plethora of different mechanisms, including prolactin dyscrasia, histamine-mediated sedation, and serotonin-induced sexual demotivation. However, a few pieces of evidence treat sexuality in patients at risk or the onset of psychosis. For this purpose, we systematically reviewed literature of the last 10 years in order to investigate sexuality in ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis and first-episode psychosis (FEP). We included in our review 34 articles fitting our research criteria on SDs in UHR and FEP. Evidence of SDs in the transition from UHR to FEP emerges through the selected studies. In FEP, sexuality is affected by the severity of the psychotic symptoms and, in some cases, by the iatrogenic effects of psychopharmacological treatment. Further experimental and clinical studies should systematically investigate the role of sexual functioning in the transition from UHR to FEP and, consequently, clarify whether or not SDs could be considered a possible marker for the onset of psychosis in at-risk populations. Moreover, psychiatrists and clinical psychologists should take into consideration the role of sexual life in young people with prodromal mental symptoms or at the onset of psychosis. Focusing on a thorough sexual evaluation might be a major challenge that could break down barriers of mental health promotion among young people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and therefore achieve better clinical outcomes.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Sophie de Munck ◽  
Monique H. M. van der Cammen-van Zijp ◽  
Tabitha P. L. Zanen-van den Adel ◽  
René M. H. Wijnen ◽  
Suzan C. M. Cochius-den Otter ◽  

Background and Objectives: Children born with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) and treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), are at risk for motor function impairment during childhood. We hypothesized that all children born with CDH are at risk for persistent motor function impairment, irrespective of ECMO-treatment. We longitudinally assessed these children's motor function.Methods: Children with CDH with and without ECMO-treatment, born 1999–2007, who joined our structural prospective follow-up program were assessed with the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC) at 5, 8, 12 years. Z-scores were used in a general linear model for longitudinal analysis.Results: We included 55 children, of whom 25 had been treated with ECMO. Forty-three (78%) were evaluated at three ages. Estimated mean (95% CI) z-scores from the general linear model were −0.67 (−0.96 to −0.39) at 5 years of age, −0.35 (−0.65 to −0.05) at 8 years, and −0.46 (−0.76 to −0.17) at 12 years. The 5- and 8-years scores differed significantly (p = 0.02). Motor development was significantly below the norm in non-ECMO treated patients at five years; −0.44 (−0.83 to −0.05), and at all ages in the ECMO-treated-patients: −0.90 (−1.32 to −0.49), −0.45 (−0.90 to −0.02) and −0.75 (−1.2 to −0.34) at 5, 8, and 12 years, respectively. Length of hospital stay was negatively associated with estimated total z-score M-ABC (p = 0.004 multivariate analysis).Conclusion: School-age children born with CDH are at risk for motor function impairment, which persists in those who received ECMO-treatment. Especially for them long-term follow up is recommended.

2021 ◽  
pp. annrheumdis-2021-221276
Peter C Taylor ◽  
Tsutomu Takeuchi ◽  
Gerd R Burmester ◽  
Patrick Durez ◽  
Josef S Smolen ◽  

ObjectiveTo report long-term safety from the completed extension trial of baricitinib, an oral selective Janus kinase inhibitor, in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis (RA).MethodsTreatment-emergent adverse events are summarised from an integrated database (9 phase III/II/Ib and 1 long-term extension) of patients who received any baricitinib dose (All-bari-RA). Standardised incidence ratio (SIR) for malignancy (excluding non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC)) and standardised mortality ratio (SMR) were estimated. Additional analysis was done in a subset of patients who had ever taken 2 mg or 4 mg baricitinib.Results3770 patients received baricitinib (14 744 patient-years of exposure (PYE)). All-bari-RA incidence rates (IRs) per 100 patient-years at risk were 2.6, 3.0 and 0.5 for serious infections, herpes zoster and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), respectively. In patients aged ≥50 with ≥1 cardiovascular risk factor, the IR for MACE was 0.77 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.04). The IR for malignancy (excluding NMSC) during the first 48 weeks was 0.6 and remained stable thereafter (IR 1.0). The SIR for malignancies excluding NMSC was 1.07 (95% CI 0.90 to 1.26) and the SMR was 0.74 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.92). All-bari-RA IRs for deep vein thrombosis (DVT)/pulmonary embolism (PE), DVT and PE were 0.5 (95% CI 0.38 to 0.61), 0.4 (95% CI 0.26 to 0.45) and 0.3 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.35), respectively. No clear dose differences were noted for exposure-adjusted IRs (per 100 PYE) for deaths, serious infections, DVT/PE and MACE.ConclusionsIn this integrated analysis including long-term data of baricitinib from 3770 patients (median 4.6 years, up to 9.3 years) with active RA, baricitinib maintained a similar safety profile to earlier analyses. No new safety signals were identified.Trial registration numberNCT01185353, NCT00902486, NCT01469013, NCT01710358, NCT02265705, NCT01721044, NCT01721057, NCT01711359 and NCT01885078.

2021 ◽  
pp. emermed-2020-211054
Lars Veldhuis ◽  
Milan L Ridderikhof ◽  
Michiel Schinkel ◽  
Joop van den Bergh ◽  
Martijn Beudel ◽  

ObjectiveValidated clinical risk scores are needed to identify patients with COVID-19 at risk of severe disease and to guide triage decision-making during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the performance of early warning scores (EWS) in the ED when identifying patients with COVID-19 who will require intensive care unit (ICU) admission for high-flow-oxygen usage or mechanical ventilation.MethodsPatients with a proven SARS-CoV-2 infection with complete resuscitate orders treated in nine hospitals between 27 February and 30 July 2020 needing hospital admission were included. Primary outcome was the performance of EWS in identifying patients needing ICU admission within 24 hours after ED presentation.ResultsIn total, 1501 patients were included. Median age was 71 (range 19–99) years and 60.3% were male. Of all patients, 86.9% were admitted to the general ward and 13.1% to the ICU within 24 hours after ED admission. ICU patients had lower peripheral oxygen saturation (86.7% vs 93.7, p≤0.001) and had a higher body mass index (29.2 vs 27.9 p=0.043) compared with non-ICU patients. National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) ≥ 6 and q-COVID Score were superior to all other studied clinical risk scores in predicting ICU admission with a fair area under the receiver operating characteristics curve of 0.740 (95% CI 0.696 to 0.783) and 0.760 (95% CI 0.712 to 0.800), respectively. NEWS2 ≥6 and q-COVID Score ≥3 discriminated patients admitted to the ICU with a sensitivity of 78.1% and 75.9%, and specificity of 56.3% and 61.8%, respectively.ConclusionIn this multicentre study, the best performing models to predict ICU admittance were the NEWS2 and the Quick COVID-19 Severity Index Score, with fair diagnostic performance. However, due to the moderate performance, these models cannot be clinically used to adequately predict the need for ICU admission within 24 hours in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection presenting at the ED.

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