mental state
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Amina Ouatiq ◽  
Kamal ElGuemmat ◽  
Khalifa Mansouri ◽  
Mohammed Qbadou

Learners attend their courses in remote or hybrid systems find it difficult to follow one size fits all courses. These difficulties have increased with the pandemic, lockdown, and the stress they cause. Hence, the role of adaptive systems to recommend personalized learning resources according to the learner's profile. The purpose of this paper is to design a system for recommending learning objects according learner's condition, including his mental state, his COVID-19 history, as well as his social situation and ability to connect to the e-learning system on a regular basis. In this article, we present an architecture of a recommendation system for personalized learning objects based on ontologies and on rule-based reasoning, and we will also describe the inference rules required for the adaptation of the educational content to the needs of the learners, taking into account the learner’s health and mental state, as well as his social situation. The system designed, and validated using the unified modeling language (UML). It additionally allows teachers to have a holistic view of learners’ progress and situations.

В.В. Хутарев-Гарнишевский

Публикуемый источник является отрывком из дневника депутата Московской городской Думы Н.П. Вишнякова (1844-1927). Автор лично не принимал участия в боевых действиях, но находился в самом эпицентре боевых действий между «красными» и «белыми», так как проживал с семьей в центре города. Именно эти события часто называют началом полноценной Гражданской войны. Его дневник отражает психологическое состояние мирного горожанина, оказавшегося заложником гражданского противостояния на улицах Москвы.Особый интерес представляют описания особенностей быта москвичей, циркулирующие среди них слухи, домыслы, их надежды и страхи, а также поведенческие стратегии различных социальных слоев. Особую ценность представляет то, что автор делал свои записи два-три раза в день, подробно фиксируя происходящее. Подобного рода источники крайне немногочисленны.Мемуарное и эпистолярное наследие Н.П. Вишнякова давно признано уникальным источником по истории общественно-политической, культурной и экономической жизни Москвы, но никогда не было опубликовано полностью. Лишь дважды публиковались небольшие отрывки.Данная публикация является частью работы по подготовке полного издания эпистолярного наследия Н.П. Вишнякова, который был вовлечен почти во все политические и экономические процессы Москвы времен правления императора Николая II. Он был депутатом (гласным) Московской Думы с 1873 по 1917 гг. с пятилетним перерывом в 1892--1897 гг., мировым судьей, известным ученым-геологом и краеведом.Для публикации были раскрыты многочисленные сокращения топонимов, а также расшифрованы индивидуальные, характерные для автора сокращения.Особую трудность представляет почерк Н.П. Вишнякова, подчас очень сложный для понимания и в отдельных случаях не поддающийся расшифровке.Эпистолярное наследия Н.П. Вишнякова весьма обширно, а сам дневник охватывает события с 1872 по 1918 гг. Published is an excerpt from a diary of N.P. Vishnyakov (1844–1927), a Moscow Duma deputy. Nikolay Petrovich has never personally participated in the events, but was in the epicenter of the October battles between the Red and the White movements, as he and his family lived in the centre of Moscow. Those events in particular are often referred to as the beginning of the real Civil War. His diary shows us the mental state of a peaceful citizen caught as a hostage during the civil confrontation on Moscow streets. Depicted are certain peculiarities of everyday life, rumors and doubts, hopes and fears of Moscovites, as well as behavioral strategies of different social groups.Most valuable is that the author made 2–3 diary entries a day, registering the events in details. Such sources are very few in number.N.P. Vishnyakov's memoirs and epistolary heritage have never before were fully published and were marked as a unique source on the history of political, cultural and economic life in Moscow between 1873--1918.This is a part of an upcoming publication of the complete texts of N.P. Vishnyakov's epistolary heritage. Nukolay Petrovich was fully engaged into almost every political and economical process in Moscow during the times of Nicholas II. He was a deputy of the Moscow Duma from 1873 to 1917, with a short break in 1892--1897, a magistrate judge, a well-known geology scientist and ethnographer.For this publication shorten forms of toponymies and some personalized abbreviations have been deciphered. It is sometimes very difficult to follow and understand N.P. Veshnyakov’s handwriting.

2022 ◽  
pp. 216770262110626
Tal Yatziv ◽  
Almog Simchon ◽  
Nicholas Manco ◽  
Michael Gilead ◽  
Helena J. V. Rutherford

The COVID-19 pandemic has been a demanding caregiving context for parents, particularly during lockdowns. In this study, we examined parental mentalization, parents’ proclivity to consider their own and their child’s mental states, during the pandemic, as manifested in mental-state language (MSL) on parenting social media. Parenting-related posts on Reddit from two time periods in the pandemic in 2020, March to April (lockdown) and July to August (postlockdown), were compared with time-matched control periods in 2019. MSL and self–other references were measured using text-analysis methods. Parental mentalization content decreased during the pandemic: Posts referred less to mental activities and to other people during the COVID-19 pandemic and showed decreased affective MSL, cognitive MSL, and self-references specifically during lockdown. Father-specific subreddits exhibited strongest declines in mentalization content, whereas mother-specific subreddits exhibited smaller changes. Implications on understanding associations between caregiving contexts and parental mentalization, gender differences, and the value of using social-media data to study parenting and mentalizing are discussed.

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 ◽  
pp. 120-127 ◽  
Anand Ramchandra Kapse ◽  
Manali Kirti Jain ◽  
Harshla S. Sarvagod

This case report focuses on 50-year-old woman who was diagnosed with dysthymia and carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). After reviewing her detailed history, she was prescribed homoeopathic medicine Natrum Carb considering the grief after death of her middle daughter, suppression of emotions since her childhood and her characteristic mental state of desiring to be alone and weeping when alone; her characteristic physical generals and dispositional qualities were also considered. After taking homoeopathic medicine, significant improvement occurred in her subjective symptoms such as paraesthesia as well as in the objective CTS-related signs such as the Tinel sign and Phalen test. Her anger, weeping spells, sleep disturbances and sadness were ameliorated as well. Homoeopathic medicine was found to be effective in relieving CTS and dysthymia in this case. Further research is needed to prove the efficacy of this treatment method in this disease.

Edoardo Nicolò Aiello ◽  
Antonella Esposito ◽  
Veronica Pucci ◽  
Sara Mondini ◽  
Nadia Bolognini ◽  

2022 ◽  
Shaozhe Cheng ◽  
Ning Tang ◽  
Yang Zhao ◽  
Jifan Zhou ◽  
mowed shen ◽  

It is an ancient insight that human actions are driven by desires. This insight inspired the formulation that a rational agent acts to maximize expected utility (MEU), which has been widely used in psychology for modeling theory of mind and in artificial intelligence (AI) for controlling machines’ actions. Yet, it's rather unclear how humans act coherently when their desires are complex and often conflicting with each other. Here we show desires do not directly control human actions. Instead, actions are regulated by an intention — a deliberate mental state that commits to a fixed future rather than taking the expected utilities of many futures evaluated by many desires. Our study reveals four behavioral signatures of human intention by demonstrating how human sequential decision-making deviates from the optimal policy based on MEU in a navigation task: “Disruption resistance” as the persistent pursuit of an original intention despite an unexpected change has made that intention suboptimal; “Ulysses-constraint of freedom” as the proactive constraint of one’s freedom by avoiding a path that could lead to many futures, similar to Ulysses’s self-binding to resist the temptation of the Siren’s song; “Enhanced legibility” as an active demonstration of intention by choosing a path whose destination can be promptly inferred by a third-party observer; “Temporal leap” as committing to a distant future even before reaching the proximal one. Our results showed how the philosophy of intention can lead to discoveries of human decision-making, which can also be empirically compared with AI algorithms. The findings showing that to define a theory of mind, intention should be highlighted as a distinctive mental state in between desires and actions, for quarantining conflicting desires from the execution of actions.

Fouad Fathy Bahgat ◽  
Ibrahim Majed Fetyani ◽  
Ali Hamad Alnasser ◽  
Abdulmohsen Mohammed Alkhalaf ◽  
Mohammed Omar Baqais ◽  

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) is a major health issue in Saudi Arabia, with a prevalence of 23.7% in 2015. Several factors contribute to the occurrence of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and its progression to Alzheimer's disease in patients with T2DM. This study assesses MCI and fatigue severity and their relationship in patients with T2DM. Out of the 160 Saudi adults interviewed at the King Khalid University Hospital in Riyadh from October 2019 till March 2020, 80 were known cases of T2DM while the rest were non-diabetic individuals. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test, Mini Mental State Exam (MMSE) and Fatigue Severity Score (FSS) were used to evaluate MCI and fatigue severity, respectively. According to the MoCA scale, 68.7% diabetic individuals as against 42.5% from the non-diabetic group had MCI. While the FSS showed that 40% of the diabetic group vs 26.3% of the non-diabetic were fatigued. In conclusion, patients with T2DM are at a higher risk of developing MCI. Keywords: Type 2 diabetes mellitus, Mild cognitive impairment, Fatigue, Mini mental state exam, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Saudi Arabia.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 37
Jie Wang ◽  
Zhuo Wang ◽  
Ning Liu ◽  
Caiyan Liu ◽  
Chenhui Mao ◽  

Background: Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely used tool in cognitive screening. Some individuals with normal MMSE scores have extensive cognitive impairment. Systematic neuropsychological assessment should be performed in these patients. This study aimed to optimize the systematic neuropsychological test battery (NTB) by machine learning and develop new classification models for distinguishing mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia among individuals with MMSE ≥ 26. Methods: 375 participants with MMSE ≥ 26 were assigned a diagnosis of cognitively unimpaired (CU) (n = 67), MCI (n = 174), or dementia (n = 134). We compared the performance of five machine learning algorithms, including logistic regression, decision tree, SVM, XGBoost, and random forest (RF), in identifying MCI and dementia. Results: RF performed best in identifying MCI and dementia. Six neuropsychological subtests with high-importance features were selected to form a simplified NTB, and the test time was cut in half. The AUC of the RF model was 0.89 for distinguishing MCI from CU, and 0.84 for distinguishing dementia from nondementia. Conclusions: This simplified cognitive assessment model can be useful for the diagnosis of MCI and dementia in patients with normal MMSE. It not only optimizes the content of cognitive evaluation, but also improves diagnosis and reduces missed diagnosis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 201-209
Tia Ayu Adiningsih ◽  
Tri Wahyuningsih ◽  
Mohamad Anwar

ABSTRACT : THE CORRELATION OF COGNITIVE FUNCTION WITH THE LEVEL OF INDEPENDENCE OF THE ELDERLY  Introduction: The increasing of elderly population will increase new problems in various fields.  Some problems and disorders that often arise or occur in the elderly are decreased of cognitive function. The physical changes that have decreased will cause various life aspects interference that have big influence on the level of independence of the elderly, include the decline in cognitive function.  The results of research that have been developed by several experts suggest that 50% of elderly with cognitive impairment will feel dependence on their caregiver or closest companion such as the family. Objective: This research was to analyze the correlation between cognitive function and the level of independence of the elderly at RW 14 Public Health Center Cibeber.Methods: The research used an analytical survey with a cross sectional approach.  The sample in this research amounted to 88 respondents using purposive sampling technique. The data collection use the results of interview with the Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) and the Katz Index.  Analysis of Kolmogorof-Smirnov test data using SPSS results. Results: The results of this research were obtained with the results of the MMSE interview, most of (60.2%) of elderly had normal cognitive function, most of (64.8%) of elderly had a level of independence.  The results of the analysis obtained (p value = 0.000 < (0.005) it means that there is a correlation between the two variables.Conclusion: There is a correlation between the cognitive function of the elderly and the level of independence in the elderly at RW 14 Public Health Center of Cibeber Area. The family is expected to be able to prevent or reduce the impact of physical decline and psychology in the elderly.  Keywords: Elderly, Cognitive Function, Level of Independence. INTISARI: HUBUNGAN FUNGSI KOGNITIF DENGAN TINGKAT KEMANDIRIAN PADA LANSIA  Pendahuluan: Semakin meningkatnya populasi lanjut usia maka akan meningkatkan masalah baru diberbagai bidang. Beberapa masalah dan gangguan yang sering muncul atau terjadi pada lansia adalah menurunnya fungsi kognitif. Perubahan fisik yang cenderung mengalami penurunan akan menyebabkan berbagai gangguan aspek kehidupan yang mempunyai pengaruh besar dalam tingkat kemandirian lansia, termasuk dalam penurunan fungsi kognitif. Hasil penelitian yang telah dikembangkan oleh beberapa ahli mengemukakan bahwa 50% lansia yang mengalami gangguan kognitif akan mengalami ketergantungan terhadap caregiver atau pendamping terdekatnya yaitu pihak keluarga.Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis hubungan fungsi kognitif dengan tingkat kemandirian lansia di wilayah Puskesmas Cibeber  RW 14. Metode: Penelitian  menggunakan  survey analitik dengan pendekatan cross sectional. Sampel dalam penelitian ini berjumlah 88 responden dengan menggunakan teknik purposive sampling. Pengumpulan data menggunakan hasil wawancara dengan Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) dan Katz Index. Analisa data  uji Kolmogorof-Smirnov menggunakan hasil SPSS.Hasil: Hasil penelitian ini didapatkan dengan hasil wawancara MMSE  sebagian besar  (60,2%) memiliki fungsi kognitif normal, sebagian besar  (64,8%) memiliki tingkat kemandirian mandiri. Hasil analisis didapatkan (p value = 0,000 < α (0,005) artinya ada hubungan antara dua variabel tersebut.Kesimpulan: Terdapat hubungan antara fungsi kognitif lansia dengan tingkat kemandirian pada lansia di  Wilayah Puskesmas Cibeber RW 14. Pihak keluarga diharapkan mampu melakukan pencegahan atau pengurangan dampak kemunduran fisik dan psikis pada lansia. Kata kunci : Lansia, Fungsi Kognitif, Tingkat Kemandirian

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