Episode Psychosis
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2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Raimo K. R. Salokangas ◽  
Tiina From ◽  
Tuula Ilonen ◽  
Sinikka Luutonen ◽  
Markus Heinimaa ◽  

Abstract Background Functional recovery of patients with clinical and subclinical psychosis is associated with clinical, neuropsychological and developmental factors. Less is known about how these factors predict functional outcomes in the same models. We investigated functional outcomes and their predictors in patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) or a confirmed or nonconfirmed clinical high risk of psychosis (CHR-P vs. CHR-N). Methods Altogether, 130 patients with FEP, 60 patients with CHR-P and 47 patients with CHR-N were recruited and extensively examined at baseline (T0) and 9 (T1) and 18 (T2) months later. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) at T0, T1 and T2 and psychotic, depression, and anxiety symptoms at T1 and T2 were assessed. Functional outcomes were predicted using multivariate repeated ANOVA. Results During follow-up, the GAF score improved significantly in patients with FEP and CHR-P but not in patients with CHR-N. A single marital status, low basic education level, poor work situation, disorganization symptoms, perceptual deficits, and poor premorbid adjustment in patients with FEP, disorganization symptoms and poor premorbid adjustment in patients with CHR-P, and a low basic education level, poor work situation and general symptoms in patients with CHR-N predicted poor functional outcomes. Psychotic symptoms at T1 in patients with FEP and psychotic and depression symptoms at T1 and anxiety symptoms at T2 in patients with CHR-P were associated with poor functioning. Conclusions In patients with FEP and CHR-P, poor premorbid adjustment and disorganization symptomatology are common predictors of the functional outcome, while a low education level and poor work situation predict worse functional outcomes in patients with FEP and CHR-N. Interventions aimed at improving the ability to work and study are most important in improving the functioning of patients with clinical or subclinical psychosis.

Donal O’Keeffe ◽  
David Marshall ◽  
Andrew Wheeler ◽  
Eoghan Allen ◽  
Helena Ronan ◽  

Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic presents unique challenges to high quality, safe Early Intervention in Psychosis (EIP) service provision. Due to the necessity to ensure EIP continues despite this, we developed a multidisciplinary, blended, telehealth intervention, incorporating psychoeducation and peer support, for family members of first episode psychosis service users: PERCEPTION. This perspective article aims to: describe PERCEPTION; offer reflections on our experience of delivering it; make recommendations for future research; and synthesise key learning to assist the integration of similar interventions in other EIP services. We provide a descriptive account of PERCEPTION’s development and implementation, with reflections from the clinicians involved, on supporting families using this approach. We experienced telehealth as patient-focused, safe, and efficient and believe the intervention’s blended nature augmented families’ engagement. The approach adopted can assist service providers to attain balance between protecting public health and offering a meaningful, therapeutic intervention to support families in the current epoch.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Oladunni Oluwoye ◽  
Beshaun Davis ◽  
Franchesca S. Kuhney ◽  
Deidre M. Anglin

AbstractThe pathway to receiving specialty care for first episode psychosis (FEP) among Black youth in the US has received little attention despite documented challenges that negatively impact engagement in care and clinical outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of US-based research, reporting findings related to the pathway experiences of Black individuals with FEP and their family members. A systematic search of PubMed, PsycInfo, and Embase/Medline was performed with no date restrictions up to April 2021. Included studies had samples with at least 75% Black individuals and/or their family members or explicitly examined racial differences. Of the 80 abstracts screened, 28 peer-reviewed articles met the inclusion criteria. Studies were categorized into three categories: premordid and prodromal phase, help-seeking experiences, and the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP). Compounding factors such as trauma, substance use, and structural barriers that occur during the premorbid and prodromal contribute to delays in treatment initiation and highlight the limited use of services for traumatic childhood experiences (e.g., sexual abuse). Studies focused on help-seeking experiences demonstrated the limited use of mental health services and the potentially traumatic entry to services (e.g., law enforcement), which is associated with a longer DUP. Although the majority of studies focused on help-seeking experiences and predictors of DUP, findings suggests that for Black populations, there is a link between trauma and substance use in the pathway to care that impacts the severity of symptoms, initiation of treatment, and DUP. The present review also identifies the need for more representative studies of Black individuals with FEP.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Nigel Ian Ming Chong ◽  
Yogeswary Maniam ◽  
Yi Chian Chua ◽  
Charmaine Tang

Objective: Early intervention in patients with first episode psychosis (FEP) can improve cognitive abilities, with both short- and long-term benefits. In this paper, we describe the implementation and review of cognitive remediation training (CRT) in an Asian FEP population. The outcomes of the training are also evaluated and discussed.Methods: This naturalistic paper describes in detail the real-life implementation and conduct of CRT in an early psychosis intervention service. One hundred and nine patients with FEP underwent a 24-session CRT programme, using Cogpack and Neuropsychological Educational Approach to Remediation. The program is evaluated with pre- and post-CRT assessment scores which included Montreal Cognitive Assessment and Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia. The rates of improvement on these cognitive assessments were evaluated using paired t-tests, with statistical significance set at p ≤ 0.05.Results: Of the 109 patients who underwent CRT, a total of 92 (84.4%) completed all 24 sessions. Paired t-tests between pre- and post-CRT assessments scores revealed that participants significantly improved on majority of the measures, including verbal memory, digit sequencing, and symbol coding.Conclusion: As with other cognitive remediation programmes, CRT has shown to improve cognitive functioning in patients with FEP. The results support the use of CRT in an Asian context and may serve as guidance for the implementation of similar training programmes in other Asian early psychosis intervention services.

Valerio Ricci ◽  
Giovanni Martinotti ◽  
Franca Ceci ◽  
Stefania Chiappini ◽  
Francesco Di Carlo ◽  

Background: The Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP) is the time between the first-episode psychosis (FEP) and the initiation of antipsychotic treatment. It is an important predictor of several disease-related outcomes in psychotic disorders. The aim of this manuscript is investigating the influence of cannabis on the DUP and its clinical correlates. Methods: During years 2014–2019, sixty-two FEP patients with and without cannabis use disorder (CUD) were recruited from several Italian psychiatric hospitals. The subjects were then divided into two groups based on the duration of the DUP and assessed at the beginning of the antipsychotic treatment and after 3 and 6 months, using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES-II). Results: As expected, a longer DUP was associated with worse symptoms and cannabis use did not seem to affect the DUP, but both were related with more dissociative symptoms at onset and over time. Discussion: According to our study, cannabis use can be a predictor of FEP and DUP, and of disease outcome. However, several factors might influence the relationship between cannabis use and DUP. Preventing cannabis use and early diagnosis of psychotic disorders might impact the disease by reducing the persistence of symptoms and limiting dissociative experiences.

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
Shinsuke Koike ◽  
Mao Fujioka ◽  
Yoshihiro Satomura ◽  
Daisuke Koshiyama ◽  
Mariko Tada ◽  

AbstractMany studies have tested the relationship between demographic, clinical, and psychobiological measurements and clinical outcomes in ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR) and first-episode psychosis (FEP). However, no study has investigated the relationship between multi-modal measurements and long-term outcomes for >2 years. Thirty-eight individuals with UHR and 29 patients with FEP were measured using one or more modalities (cognitive battery, electrophysiological response, structural magnetic resonance imaging, and functional near-infrared spectroscopy). We explored the characteristics associated with 13- and 28-month clinical outcomes. In UHR, the cortical surface area in the left orbital part of the inferior frontal gyrus was negatively associated with 13-month disorganized symptoms. In FEP, the cortical surface area in the left insula was positively associated with 28-month global social function. The left inferior frontal gyrus and insula are well-known structural brain characteristics in schizophrenia, and future studies on the pathological mechanism of structural alteration would provide a clearer understanding of the disease.

Genes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (12) ◽  
pp. 1895
Sarah Tosato ◽  
Chiara Bonetto ◽  
Evangelos Vassos ◽  
Antonio Lasalvia ◽  
Katia De Santi ◽  

Understanding and improving the outcomes of psychosis remains a major challenge for clinical research. Obstetric complications (OCs) as a risk factor for schizophrenia (SZ) have been investigated as a potential predictor of outcomes in relation to illness severity and poorer treatment outcome, but there are less reports on first episode psychosis (FEP) patients. We test whether OCs, collected in a cohort of FEP patients, can predict illness course and psychopathology severity after 2 years from the onset. Moreover, we explore whether the SZ-polygenic risk score (PRS) would predict the illness course and whether the interaction between OCS and PRS shows a significant effect. A cohort of 264 FEP patients were assessed with standardized instruments. OCs were recorded using the Lewis–Murray scale in interviews with the patients’ mothers: 30% of them reported at least one OC. Patients with at least one OC were more likely to have a non-remitting course of illness compared to those without OCs (35.3% vs. 16.3%, p = 0.014). No association between SZ-PRS and course of illness nor evidence for a gene–environment interaction was found. In our sample, poor short-term outcomes were associated with OCs, while SZ-PRS was not a prognostic indicator of poor outcomes.

Stephen F. Austin ◽  
Carsten Hjorthøj ◽  
Helle Baagland ◽  
Erik Simonsen ◽  
Jesper Dam

2021 ◽  
Jenny Garcia ◽  
Lina M Agudelo ◽  
Maria A Canas ◽  
Natalia Castro-Campos ◽  
Oscar J Ribero ◽  

Background: Most studies with first episode psychosis patients have been conducted in high-income countries. On the other hand, very few first episode studies have been conducted in Latin-America. Therefore, the goal of our study is to determine predictors of treatment response, remission, relapse and rehospitalization in a first episode psychosis population from Medellin, Colombia. Methods: Data was obtained from electronic health records from first episode patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia-spectrum disorder diagnoses who were evaluated between January 2014 and December 2016 at two psychiatric institutions in Medellin, Colombia. Survival and Cox proportional hazard models were used for the analysis. Results: Duration of untreated psychosis and hospitalization at the time of presentation was associated with both response and remission. Response was also predicted by less first-order symptoms and more years of education. Remission was predicted by older age of onset. Relapse and rehospitalization were predicted by use of substances and poor adherence to pharmacologic treatment. Less years of education and hospitalization at the time of presentation were also associated with rehospitalization. Conclusion: Predictors of treatment response, remission, relapse and rehospitalization in first-episode patients are similar in Colombia compared to other high-income regions such as the United States and Europe. Keywords: schizophrenia, first episode, Colombia, Medellin, predictors, treatment response

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