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2022 ◽  
Manosree Chatterjee ◽  
Nripen Chanda

The eminence of nano-scale materials prevailed after the invention of high-resolution microscopes. Nowadays, nanoparticles are predominantly found in every application, including biomedical applications. In nanomedicine, the unique properties make nano-scale...

2022 ◽  
Vol 307 ◽  
pp. 118193
Blazhe Gjorgiev ◽  
Jared B. Garrison ◽  
Xuejiao Han ◽  
Florian Landis ◽  
Renger van Nieuwkoop ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 940-943
Faady Yahya ◽  
Christian F. Prünte ◽  
Hendrik P.N. Scholl ◽  
Zisis Gatzioufas

We report the case of a 23-year-old male who was referred to our clinic for a routine follow-up examination. The patient was treated for keratoconus 3 years ago in Colombia, where intracorneal ring segments were implanted mechanically in both eyes to improve his visual acuity. Surprisingly, we discovered a pre-descemetic placement of intracorneal ring segments, which could lead to potential complications, under circumstances. We illustrate this impressive finding with slit-lamp photography and high-resolution anterior segment OCT and advocate for the use of femtosecond laser as the method of choice for intracorneal ring segment insertion in order to provide maximal precision and safety.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Kai P. Law ◽  
Wei He ◽  
Jianchang Tao ◽  
Chuanlun Zhang

Archaea are differentiated from the other two domains of life by their biomolecular characteristics. One such characteristic is the unique structure and composition of their lipids. Characterization of the whole set of lipids in a biological system (the lipidome) remains technologically challenging. This is because the lipidome is innately complex, and not all lipid species are extractable, separable, or ionizable by a single analytical method. Furthermore, lipids are structurally and chemically diverse. Many lipids are isobaric or isomeric and often indistinguishable by the measurement of mass or even their fragmentation spectra. Here we developed a novel analytical protocol based on liquid chromatography ion mobility mass spectrometry to enhance the coverage of the lipidome and characterize the conformations of archaeal lipids by their collision cross-sections (CCSs). The measurements of ion mobility revealed the gas-phase ion chemistry of representative archaeal lipids and provided further insights into their attributions to the adaptability of archaea to environmental stresses. A comprehensive characterization of the lipidome of mesophilic marine thaumarchaeon, Nitrosopumilus maritimus (strain SCM1) revealed potentially an unreported phosphate- and sulfate-containing lipid candidate by negative ionization analysis. It was the first time that experimentally derived CCS values of archaeal lipids were reported. Discrimination of crenarchaeol and its proposed stereoisomer was, however, not achieved with the resolving power of the SYNAPT G2 ion mobility system, and a high-resolution ion mobility system may be required for future work. Structural and spectral libraries of archaeal lipids were constructed in non-vendor-specific formats and are being made available to the community to promote research of Archaea by lipidomics.

2021 ◽  
Zélie Stalhandske ◽  
Valentina Nesa ◽  
Marius Zumwald ◽  
Martina S. Ragettli ◽  
Alina Galimshina ◽  

Abstract. Extreme temperatures have reached unprecedented levels in many regions of the globe due to climate change anda further increase is expected. Besides other consequences, high temperatures increase the mortality risk and severely affectthe labour productivity of workers. We perform a high-resolution spatial analysis to assess the impacts of heat on mortality and labour productivity in Switzerland and project their development under different Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) scenarios, considering that no socio-economic changes takes place. The model is based on the risk framework of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), which combines the three risk components: Hazard, Exposure, and Vulnerability. We model the two impact categories in the same spatially explicit framework and we integrate uncertainties into the analysis through a Monte Carlo simulation. We model, that first, about 670 people die today per year because of heat in Switzerland. Second, the economic costs caused by losses in labour productivity amount to around CHF 413 million (approx. $ 465 million) per year. Should we remain on an RCP8.5 emissions pathway, these values may double (for mortality) or even triple (for labour productivity) by the end of the century. Under an RCP2.6 scenario impacts are expected to slightly increaseand peak around mid-century, when climate is assumed to stop warming. Even though uncertainties in the model are large, theunderlying trend in impacts is unequivocal. The results of the study are valuable information for political discussions and allowfor a better understanding of the cost of inaction.

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (4) ◽  
Zeynab Yassin ◽  
Fariba Shirvani ◽  
Mahsa Fattahi

Background: Candida albicans is the predominant yeast reported from human infection. Non-albicans Candida species have been recently developed as medically vital fungi. Therefore, it is essential to detect and identify the pathogens at the species level to prescribe appropriate treatment. Methods: This study assessed two complementary methods, including real-time polymerase chain reaction-high resolution melt (PCR-HRM) and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length morphism (PCR-RFLP) with standard PCR and Sanger sequencing as the benchmark. Results: In total, 66 samples were tested, and two newly-advanced assays were more effective and displayed comprehensive concordance (66/66, 100%) with Sanger sequencing outcomes. Moreover, accurate and economical tests were positively advanced by real-time PCR-HRM for C. albicans and C. parapsilosis complexes. Conclusions: Given the number of studies performed on the comparison of sensitivity and specificity of phenotypic and genotypic methods to diagnose and identify invasive fungal pathogens and the findings of this study, it could be stated that the correlative PCR-HRM and PCR-RFLP methods were effectively advanced as substitutes for conventional Sanger sequencing for the reasonable identification. However, supplementary evaluations and confirming studies should be carried out with a broad range of samples to standardize this method for routine application in medical laboratories.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Amilcar J. Perez ◽  
Jesus Bazan Villicana ◽  
Ho-Ching T. Tsui ◽  
Madeline L. Danforth ◽  
Mattia Benedet ◽  

The bacterial FtsZ-ring initiates division by recruiting a large repertoire of proteins (the divisome; Z-ring) needed for septation and separation of cells. Although FtsZ is essential and its role as the main orchestrator of cell division is conserved in most eubacteria, the regulators of Z-ring presence and positioning are not universal. This study characterizes factors that regulate divisome presence and placement in the ovoid-shaped pathogen, Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), focusing on FtsZ, EzrA, SepF, ZapA, and ZapJ, which is reported here as a partner of ZapA. Epi-fluorescence microscopy (EFm) and high-resolution microscopy experiments showed that FtsZ and EzrA co-localize during the entire Spn cell cycle, whereas ZapA and ZapJ are late-arriving divisome proteins. Depletion and conditional mutants demonstrate that EzrA is essential in Spn and required for normal cell growth, size, shape homeostasis, and chromosome segregation. Moreover, EzrA(Spn) is required for midcell placement of FtsZ-rings and PG synthesis. Notably, overexpression of EzrA leads to the appearance of extra Z-rings in Spn. Together, these observations support a role for EzrA as a positive regulator of FtsZ-ring formation in Spn. Conversely, FtsZ is required for EzrA recruitment to equatorial rings and for the organization of PG synthesis. In contrast to EzrA depletion, which causes a bacteriostatic phenotype in Spn, depletion of FtsZ results in enlarged spherical cells that are subject to LytA-dependent autolysis. Co-immunoprecipitation and bacterial two-hybrid assays show that EzrA(Spn) is in complexes with FtsZ, Z-ring regulators (FtsA, SepF, ZapA, MapZ), division proteins (FtsK, StkP), and proteins that mediate peptidoglycan synthesis (GpsB, aPBP1a), consistent with a role for EzrA at the interface of cell division and PG synthesis. In contrast to the essentiality of FtsZ and EzrA, ZapA and SepF have accessory roles in regulating pneumococcal physiology. We further show that ZapA interacts with a non-ZapB homolog, named here as ZapJ, which is conserved in Streptococcus species. The absence of the accessory proteins, ZapA, ZapJ, and SepF, exacerbates growth defects when EzrA is depleted or MapZ is deleted. Taken together, these results provide new information about the spatially and temporally distinct proteins that regulate FtsZ-ring organization and cell division in Spn.

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