Wind Speed
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Bashar Iqbal

Abstract: The requirement of tall building in recent years increase the construction to satisfy the need of human beings. Very tall buildings located in high velocity wind area are highly sensitive therefore calculation and analysis of wind load is very impotent. Due to change in climatic condition the basic wind speed are increases. The main aim of this paper is to introducing the different techniques which is used to reduce the effect of wind load or lateral loads. Keywords: wind analysis, comparative analysis, TMD (tuned mass damper),friction damper, shear wall

2021 ◽  
Vol 218 ◽  
pp. 104791
Bo Li ◽  
Chen Li ◽  
Qingshan Yang ◽  
Yuji Tian ◽  
Xinxin Zhang

2021 ◽  
Vol 248 ◽  
pp. 114775
Zhongda Tian ◽  
Hao Chen

2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (10) ◽  
pp. 5473-5491
Jeffery Hoover ◽  
Michael E. Earle ◽  
Paul I. Joe ◽  
Pierre E. Sullivan

Abstract. Collection efficiency transfer functions that compensate for wind-induced collection loss are presented and evaluated for unshielded precipitation gauges. Three novel transfer functions with wind speed and precipitation fall velocity dependence are developed, including a function from computational fluid dynamics modelling (CFD), an experimental fall velocity threshold function (HE1), and an experimental linear fall velocity dependence function (HE2). These functions are evaluated alongside universal (KUniversal) and climate-specific (KCARE) transfer functions with wind speed and temperature dependence. Transfer function performance is assessed using 30 min precipitation event accumulations reported by unshielded and shielded Geonor T-200B3 precipitation gauges over two winter seasons. The latter gauge was installed in a Double Fence Automated Reference (DFAR) configuration. Estimates of fall velocity were provided by the Precipitation Occurrence Sensor System (POSS). The CFD function reduced the RMSE (0.08 mm) relative to KUniversal (0.20 mm), KCARE (0.13 mm), and the unadjusted measurements (0.24 mm), with a bias error of 0.011 mm. The HE1 function provided a RMSE of 0.09 mm and bias error of 0.006 mm, capturing the collection efficiency trends for rain and snow well. The HE2 function better captured the overall collection efficiency, including mixed precipitation, resulting in a RMSE of 0.07 mm and bias error of 0.006 mm. These functions are assessed across solid and liquid hydrometeor types and for temperatures between −22 and 19 ∘C. The results demonstrate that transfer functions incorporating hydrometeor fall velocity can dramatically reduce the uncertainty of adjusted precipitation measurements relative to functions based on temperature.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Chien-Ho Wang ◽  
Shih-Chieh Shao ◽  
Kai-Cheng Chang ◽  
Ming-Jui Hung ◽  
Chen-Chang Yang ◽  

Background: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the leading cause of poisoning death worldwide, but associations between CO poisoning and weather remain unclear.Objective: To quantify the influence of climate parameters (e.g., temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed) on the incidence risk of acute CO poisoning in Taiwan.Methods: We used negative binomial mixed models (NBMMs) to evaluate the influence of weather parameters on the incidence risk of acute CO poisoning. Subgroup analyses were conducted, based on the seasonality and the intentionality of acute CO poisoning cases.Results: We identified a total of 622 patients (mean age: 32.9 years old; female: 51%) with acute CO poisoning in the study hospital. Carbon monoxide poisoning was associated with temperature (beta: −0.0973, rate ratio (RR): 0.9073, p < 0.0001) but not with relative humidity (beta: 0.1290, RR: 1.1377, p = 0.0513) or wind speed (beta: −0.4195, RR: 0.6574, p = 0.0806). In the subgroup analyses, temperature was associated with the incidence of intentional CO poisoning (beta: 0.1076, RR: 1.1136, p = 0.0333) in spring and unintentional CO poisoning (beta: −0.1865, RR: 0.8299, p = 0.0184) in winter.Conclusion: Changes in temperature affect the incidence risk for acute CO poisoning, but the impact varies with different seasons and intentionality in Taiwan. Our findings quantify the effects of climate factors and provide fundamental evidence for healthcare providers to develop preventative strategies to reduce acute CO poisoning events.

A. R. M. Alsayed

AbstractThe coronavirus pandemic is one of the most fast-spreading diseases in the history, and the transmission of this virus has crossed rapidly over the whole world. In this study, we intend to detect the effect of temperature, precipitation, and wind speed on the Coronavirus infected cases throughout climate seasons for the whole year of epidemic starting from February 20, 2020 to February 19, 2021 with considering data patterns of each season separately; winter, spring, summer, autumn, in Mediterranean European regions, whereas those are located at the similar temperature zone in southern Europe. We apply the panel data approach by considering the developed robust estimation of clustered standard error which leads to achieving high forecasting accuracy. The main finding supports that temperature and wind speed have significant influence in reducing the Coronavirus cases at the beginning of this epidemic particularly in the first-winter, spring, and early summer, but they have very weak effects in the autumn and second-winter. Therefore, it is important to take into account the changes throughout seasons, and to consider other indirect factors which influence the virus transmission. This finding could lead to significant contributions to policymakers in European Union and European Commission Environment to limit the Coronavirus transmissions. As the Mediterranean region becomes more crowded for tourism purposes particularly in the summer season.

Nan Zhang ◽  
Xiaoming Xue ◽  
Wei Jiang ◽  
Liping Shi ◽  
Chen Feng ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (20) ◽  
pp. 4076
Yunxia Long ◽  
Changchun Xu ◽  
Fang Liu ◽  
Yongchang Liu ◽  
Gang Yin

Near surface wind speed has significant impacts on ecological environment change and climate change. Based on the CN05.1 observation data (a gridded monthly dataset with the resolution of 0.25 latitude by 0.25 longitude over China), this study evaluated the ability of 25 Global Climate Models (GCMs) from Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 6 (CMIP6) in simulating the wind speed in the Arid Region of Northwest China (ARNC) during 1971–2014. Then, the temporal and spatial variations in the surface wind speed of ARNC in the 21st century were projected under four Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs), SSP1-2.6, SSP2-4.5, SSP3-7.0, and SP5-8.5. The results reveal that the preferred-model ensemble (PME) can fairly evaluate the temporal and spatial distribution of surface wind speed with the temporal and spatial correlation coefficients exceeding 0.5 at the significance level of p = 0.05 when compared to the 25 single models and their ensemble mean. After deviation correction, the PME can reproduce the distribution characteristics of high wind speed in the east and low in the west, high in mountainous areas, and low in basins. Unfortunately, no models or model ensemble can accurately reproduce the decreasing magnitude of observed wind speed. In the 21st century, the surface wind speed in the ARNC is projected to increase under SSP1-2.6 scenario but will decrease remarkably under the other three scenarios. Moreover, the higher the emission scenarios, the more significant the surface wind speed decreases. Spatially, the wind speed will increase significantly in the west and southeast of Xinjiang, decrease in the north of Xinjiang and the south of Tarim Basin. What’s more, under the four scenarios, the surface wind speed will decrease in spring, summer and autumn, especially in summer, and increase in winter. The wind speed will decrease significantly in the north of Tianshan Mountains in summer, decrease significantly in the north of Xinjiang and the southern edge of Tarim Basin in spring and autumn, and increase in fluctuation with high values in Tianshan Mountains in winter.

Energies ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (20) ◽  
pp. 6548
Peng Liao ◽  
Jiyang Fu ◽  
Wenyong Ma ◽  
Yuan Cai ◽  
Yuncheng He

According to the engineering phenomenon of the galloping of ice-coated transmission lines at certain wind speeds, this paper proposes a novel type of energy harvester based on the galloping of a flexible structure. It uses the tension generated by the galloping structure to cause periodic strain on the piezoelectric cantilever beam, which is highly efficient for converting wind energy into electricity. On this basis, a physical model of fluid–structure interaction is established, and the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equation and SST K -ω turbulent model based on ANSYS Fluent are used to carry out a two-dimensional steady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) numerical simulation. First, the CFD technology under different grid densities and time steps is verified. CFD numerical simulation technology is used to simulate the physical model of the energy harvester, and the effect of wind speed on the lateral displacement and aerodynamic force of the flexible structure is analyzed. In addition, this paper also carries out a parameterized study on the influence of the harvester’s behavior, through the wind tunnel test, focusing on the voltage and electric power output efficiency. The harvester has a maximum output power of 119.7 μW/mm3 at the optimal resistance value of 200 KΩ at a wind speed of 10 m/s. The research results provide certain guidance for the design of a high-efficiency harvester with a square aerodynamic shape and a flexible bluff body.

Climate ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (10) ◽  
pp. 150
Mohamed ElBessa ◽  
Saad Mesbah Abdelrahman ◽  
Kareem Tonbol ◽  
Mohamed Shaltout

The characteristics of near surface air temperature and wind field over the Southeastern Levantine (SEL) sub-basin during the period 1979–2018 were simulated. The simulation was carried out using a dynamical downscaling approach, which requires running a regional climate model system (RegCM-SVN6994) on the study domain, using lower-resolution climate data (i.e., the fifth generation of ECMWF atmospheric reanalysis of the global climate ERA5 datasets) as boundary conditions. The quality of the RegCM-SVN simulation was first verified by comparing its simulations with ERA5 for the studied region from 1979 to 2018, and then with the available five WMO weather stations from 2007 to 2018. The dynamical downscaling results proved that RegCM-SVN in its current configuration successfully simulated the observed surface air temperature and wind field. Moreover, RegCM-SVN was proved to provide similar or even better accuracy (during extreme events) than ERA5 in simulating both surface air temperature and wind speed. The simulated annual mean T2m by RegCM-SVN (from 1979 to 2018) was 20.9 °C, with a positive warming trend of 0.44 °C/decade over the study area. Moreover, the annual mean wind speed by RegCM-SVN was 4.17 m/s, demonstrating an annual negative trend of wind speed over 92% of the study area. Surface air temperatures over SEL mostly occurred within the range of 4–31 °C; however, surface wind speed rarely exceeded 10 m/s. During the study period, the seasonal features of T2m showed a general warming trend along the four seasons and showed a wind speed decreasing trend during spring and summer. The results of the RegCM-SVN simulation constitute useful information that could be utilized to fully describe the study area in terms of other atmospheric parameters.

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