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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
Author(s):  
C. S. F. Souza ◽  
B. H. S. Souza ◽  
R. A. C. Parrella ◽  
M. L. F. Simeone ◽  
P. T. Nascimento ◽  
...  

Abstract The lower lignin content in plants species with energy potential results in easier cellulose breakdown, making glucose available for ethanol generation. However, higher lignin levels can increase resistance to insect attack. The objective of this work was to evaluate the susceptibility of a bmr-6 biomass sorghum (a mutant genotype with a lower concentration of lignin) to important pests of energy sorghum, Diatraea saccharalis and Spodoptera frugiperda. Experiments were performed in the laboratory and greenhouse to evaluate the development of these pests on the biomass sorghum bmr hybrids BR007, BR008, and TX635 and their respective conventional near-isogenic genotypes (without the bmr gene). The lignin content was higher in non-bmr hybrids, but the evaluated insect variables varied between treatments, not being consistent in just one hybrid or because it is bmr or not. The lowest survival of S. frugiperda was observed in the BR008 hybrid, both bmr and non-bmr. The S. frugiperda injury scores on plants in the greenhouse were high (>7) in all treatments. For D. saccharalis, there was no difference in larval survival in the laboratory, but in the greenhouse, the BR007 hybrid, both bmr and non-bmr, provided greater survival. Due the need to diversify the energy matrix and the fact that greater susceptibility of the bmr hybrids to either pests was not found in this study, these results hold promise for cultivation of these biomass sorghum hybrids for the production of biofuels.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262595
Author(s):  
Megersa Tesfaye Boke ◽  
Semu Ayalew Moges ◽  
Zeleke Agide Dejen

Ethiopia unveiled homegrown economic reform agenda aimed to achieve a lower-middle status by 2030 and sustain its economic growth to achieve medium-middle and higher-middle status by 2040 and 2050 respectively. In this study, we evaluated the optimal renewable energy mix for power generation and associated investment costs for the country to progressively achieve upper-middle-income countries by 2050. Two economic scenarios: business as usual and Ethiopia’s homegrown reform agenda scenario were considered. The study used an Open Source energy Modeling System. The model results suggest: if projected power demand increases as anticipated in the homegrown reform agenda scenario, Ethiopia requires to expand the installed power capacity to 31.22GW, 112.45GW and 334.27GW to cover the current unmet and achieve lower, medium and higher middle-income status by 2030, 2040 and 2050 respectively. The Ethiopian energy mix continues to be dominated by hydropower and starts gradually shifting to solar and wind energy development towards 2050 as a least-cost energy supply option. The results also indicate Ethiopia needs to invest about 70 billion US$ on power plant investments for the period 2021–2030 to achieve the lower-middle-income electricity per capita consumption target by 2030 and staggering cumulative investment in the order of 750 billion US$ from 2031 to 2050 inclusive to achieve upper-middle-income electricity consumption rates by 2050. Ethiopia has enough renewable energy potential to achieve its economic target. Investment and financial sourcing remain a priority challenge. The findings could be useful in supporting decision-making concerning socio-economic development and investment pathways in the country.


2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 125-137
Author(s):  
Roman Yanko ◽  
Elena Chaka ◽  
Mikhail Levashov

Background: Literature data on the effect of methionine on functional activity and, especially, on morphological changes in the liver parenchyma in animals of different ages are sporadic, and research results are often ambiguous. Aim: The purpose of this work was to study and compare the morphofunctional changes in the liver of rats of different ages on prolonged administration of L-methionine. Material and Methods: The experiment was performed on 48 male Wistar rats of 3 and 15 months of age. Animals of the experimental group received L-methionine at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight in addition to the standard diet, daily for 21 days. Histological preparations were prepared from liver tissue by a standard technique. Morphometry was performed on digital images using the computer program «Image J». Succinate dehydrogenase activity and protein concentration were determined in the suspension of hepatocyte mitochondria. Results: It was revealed that 21-day administration of L-methionine to rats led to hypertrophy of the hepatocyte nucleus, an increase in the nuclear-cytoplasmic ratio, the number of binuclear hepatocytes, and the nucleolus in the cell nucleus. The relative area of ​​the sinusoids network increased by 50% in 3-month-old animals. This indicated a better blood filling of the liver parenchyma. The increase in succinate dehydrogenase activity and protein concentration was revealed in the suspension of hepatocyte mitochondria of the experimental rats. This indicated an increase in the mitochondria energy potential and protein-synthetic activity. Conclusions: The administration of prophylactic doses of methionine to healthy rats leads to the appearance of pronounced morphological and functional signs of increased activity of hepatocytes. The severity of this effect has a distinct age-dependent character. In young rats, it is more pronounced than in mature rats. The results of the study are important for practical medicine when using methionine for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes.


2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 814
Author(s):  
Josef Seják ◽  
Ivo Machar ◽  
Jan Pokorný ◽  
Karl Seeley ◽  
Jitka Elznicová

This article shows how to restore Central European natural capital effectively. Water in the landscape is primarily sustained by vegetation and soil, most effectively by natural forests and only secondarily by artificial reservoirs. The authors document these facts using a case study from the Želivka River basin (Švihov reservoir), which collects surface water for the metropolitan region of Prague and Central Bohemia. With the Energy-Water-Vegetation Method, the authors demonstrate that the cultural human-changed landscape of the Želivka river basin is able to utilize only about 60% of its solar energy potential. In 1.5% of the territory of the Czech Republic, society annually loses supporting ecosystem services at a level higher than 25% of the annual GDP of the CR 2015. Water retention in the landscape needs to be re-evaluated and addressed in accordance with the thermodynamic principles of life and ecosystem functioning in the biosphere. It is necessary to begin restoring the most efficient natural capital in the landscapes and to return the broad-leaved deciduous forests by intelligent forestation methods to the cultural landscape to the extent justified; this is especially true of the Želivka River basin, which is Czechia’s biggest surface drinking-water collecting area.


Author(s):  
E. Achbab ◽  
R. Lambarki ◽  
H. Rhinane ◽  
D. Saifaoui

Abstract. Nowadays, the use of solar energy in buildings, especially photovoltaic energy, has undergone a great evolution in the world, thanks to various technological advances and to incentive programs. Related to this topic, the solar cadaster is an important interactive tool to predict the solar potential in an urban environment. The main objective of this research work is to estimate the photovoltaic energy potential of roofs based on aerial photogrammetry and GIS processing. The location chosen for the study is the Maarif district located in the city of Casablanca in order to raise awareness of the public and decision makers to this energy potential through a geoportal that will be developed for this purpose. The tool proposed in this research work makes it possible to evaluate the solar irradiation on a part of the territory of Casablanca with a sufficiently satisfactory precision and reliability, this thanks to the precise reconstruction of the territory in 3D urban model called digital surface model (DSM) at 50 cm resolution by techniques known as photogrammetry which makes it possible to carry out measurements extracted from a stereoscopic pairs, by using the parallax and the correlation between the digital images taken from various points of view. The analysis was used on the basis of specific algorithms and several factors including geographical location, shade, tilt, orientation, roof accessibility and topography which are the main factors influencing the productivity of solar panels.


Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 105
Author(s):  
Ibrahim Al-Helal ◽  
Abdullah Alsadon ◽  
Samy Marey ◽  
Abdullah Ibrahim ◽  
Mohamed Shady ◽  
...  

In arid regions, drastic seasonal variations in the climatic parameters are common; thus, a high potential of geothermal effects for heating/cooling applications is expected. However, such applications are very limited in these regions due to the lack of information about underground temperature profiles of the surface and shallow zones. Therefore, this study aims to (i) measure the underground temperature profile for one year to determine the optimum depth for burying EAHE pipes; (ii) examine the possibility of water vapour condensation occurring in the buried EAHE pipes, if the air let into the pipes was humid; and (iii) quantify the maximum cooling/heating capacity, if an EAHE was implemented. The results show that a 3-meter depth is optimal to bury EAHE pipes, where the ground temperature is 32 °C in the summer and 29 °C in the winter. These temperatures would provide a maximum cooling/heating capacity of 1000/890 MJ day−1 for each 1 m3 of humid air exhausted from a greenhouse. If the EAHE were to operate in a closed loop with a greenhouse, the condensation of water vapour in the EAHE pipes would be impossible during the cooling process. The results of this study are useful for designers using geothermal effects for indoor space cooling and heating in arid regions.


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