Fossil Record
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Phytotaxa ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 530 (3) ◽  
pp. 295-300

We describe a new species of the diatom genus Grunowia, G. mannii Kociolek & A.Danz, sp. nov., from a Miocene fossil deposit in New Mexico, USA. The species has wide fibulae, a keel that is off-center externally, with distinct proximal raphe ends, both internally and externally. The species is differentiated from others in the genus in the narrow valves that are swollen and rounded in the center. We formally transfer two species from Nitzschia to Grunowia, making the new combinations, Grunowia constricta (Chen & Zhu) Kociolek & A.Danz, comb. nov. and Grunowia pseudosinuata (Hamilton & Laird) Kociolek & A.Danz, comb. nov. We discuss the distribution of the genus over time and space. This report from the Miocene represents the oldest known member of the genus Grunowia in the fossil record.

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Ben Thuy ◽  
Mats E. Eriksson ◽  
Manfred Kutscher ◽  
Johan Lindgren ◽  
Lea D. Numberger-Thuy ◽  

AbstractPivotal anatomical innovations often seem to appear by chance when viewed through the lens of the fossil record. As a consequence, specific driving forces behind the origination of major organismal clades generally remain speculative. Here, we present a rare exception to this axiom by constraining the appearance of a diverse animal group (the living Ophiuroidea) to a single speciation event rather than hypothetical ancestors. Fossils belonging to a new pair of temporally consecutive species of brittle stars (Ophiopetagno paicei gen. et sp. nov. and Muldaster haakei gen. et sp. nov.) from the Silurian (444–419 Mya) of Sweden reveal a process of miniaturization that temporally coincides with a global extinction and environmental perturbation known as the Mulde Event. The reduction in size from O. paicei to M. haakei forced a structural simplification of the ophiuroid skeleton through ontogenetic retention of juvenile traits, thereby generating the modern brittle star bauplan.

Fossil Record ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 24 (2) ◽  
pp. 445-453
Jia Gao ◽  
Michael S. Engel ◽  
Friðgeir Grímsson ◽  
Lei Gu ◽  
Dong Ren ◽  

Abstract. A new genus and species of fossil wood wasp is described and figured from mid-Cretaceous Kachin amber, representing the first occurrence of the family Xiphydriidae in the fossil record. Paraxiphydria resinata gen. et sp. nov. exhibits typical apomorphies of the family including a generally cylindrical body, elongate neck and dome-shaped head. Nonetheless, owing to a unique combination of traits including features hitherto unknown among species of the family, the genus is classified within a separate subfamily, Paraxiphydriinae subfam. nov. A key is presented to the suprageneric groups of Xiphydriidae. The newly described species is the first fossil xiphydriid wood wasp, extends the occurrence of Xiphydriidae into the mid-Cretaceous and adds to the known diversity of features in the family. Lastly, the simplification of wing venation and hypotheses of host-plant affiliations of early xiphydriids are discussed. We evaluate pollen associated with the wasp, assign it to the genus Cycadopites and conclude that an affiliation to the Cycadales is most likely. Article and nomenclatural acts are registered in ZooBank (, last access: 15 December 2021), with the following life science identifier (LSID) (reference):

Palaeontology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Farideh Moharrek ◽  
Paul D. Taylor ◽  
Daniele Silvestro ◽  
Helen L. Jenkins ◽  
Dennis P. Gordon ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 924 (2) ◽  
pp. 73
Andrea Gebek ◽  
Jorryt Matthee

Abstract The ratio of α-elements to iron in galaxies holds valuable information about the star formation history (SFH) since their enrichment occurs on different timescales. The fossil record of stars in galaxies has mostly been excavated for passive galaxies, since the light of star-forming galaxies is dominated by young stars, which have much weaker atmospheric absorption features. Here we use the largest reference cosmological simulation of the EAGLE project to investigate the origin of variations in stellar α-enhancement among star-forming galaxies at z = 0, and their impact on integrated spectra. The definition of α-enhancement in a composite stellar population is ambiguous. We elucidate two definitions—termed “mean” and “galactic” α-enhancement—in more detail. While a star-forming galaxy has a high “mean” α-enhancement when its stars formed rapidly, a galaxy with a large “galactic” α-enhancement generally had a delayed SFH. We find that absorption-line strengths of Mg and Fe correlate with variations in α-enhancement. These correlations are strongest for the “galactic” α-enhancement. However, we show that these are mostly caused by other effects that are cross-correlated with α-enhancement, such as variations in the light-weighted age. This severely complicates the retrieval of α-enhancements in star-forming galaxies. The ambiguity is not severe for passive galaxies, and we confirm that spectral variations in these galaxies are caused by measurable variations in α-enhancements. We suggest that this more complex coupling between α-enhancement and SFHs can guide the interpretation of new observations of star-forming galaxies.

2022 ◽  
pp. 15-29
Manuel J. Salesa ◽  
Stéphane Peigné ◽  
Mauricio Antón ◽  
Jorge Morales

2022 ◽  
Vol 113 ◽  
pp. 103686
Claudia Inés Serrano-Brañas ◽  
Belinda Espinosa-Chávez ◽  
José Flores Ventura ◽  
Daniel Barrera-Guevara ◽  
Esperanza Torres-Rodríguez ◽  

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