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Published By Springer Nature

2399-3642

2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Takuya Isomura ◽  
Hideaki Shimazaki ◽  
Karl J. Friston

AbstractThis work considers a class of canonical neural networks comprising rate coding models, wherein neural activity and plasticity minimise a common cost function—and plasticity is modulated with a certain delay. We show that such neural networks implicitly perform active inference and learning to minimise the risk associated with future outcomes. Mathematical analyses demonstrate that this biological optimisation can be cast as maximisation of model evidence, or equivalently minimisation of variational free energy, under the well-known form of a partially observed Markov decision process model. This equivalence indicates that the delayed modulation of Hebbian plasticity—accompanied with adaptation of firing thresholds—is a sufficient neuronal substrate to attain Bayes optimal inference and control. We corroborated this proposition using numerical analyses of maze tasks. This theory offers a universal characterisation of canonical neural networks in terms of Bayesian belief updating and provides insight into the neuronal mechanisms underlying planning and adaptive behavioural control.


2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Kenichiro Ito ◽  
Yoshihiko Matsuda ◽  
Ayako Mine ◽  
Natsuki Shikida ◽  
Kazutoshi Takahashi ◽  
...  

AbstractMimetics of growth factors and cytokines are promising tools for culturing large numbers of cells and manufacturing regenerative medicine products. In this study, we report single-chain tandem macrocyclic peptides (STaMPtides) as mimetics in a new multivalent peptide format. STaMPtides, which contain two or more macrocyclic peptides with a disulfide-closed backbone and peptide linkers, are successfully secreted into the supernatant by Corynebacterium glutamicum-based secretion technology. Without post-secretion modification steps, such as macrocyclization or enzymatic treatment, bacterially secreted STaMPtides form disulfide bonds, as designed; are biologically active; and show agonistic activities against respective target receptors. We also demonstrate, by cell-based assays, the potential of STaMPtides, which mimic growth factors and cytokines, in cell culture. The STaMPtide technology can be applied to the design, screening, and production of growth factor and cytokine mimetics.


2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jia-Zhen Sun ◽  
Tifeng Wang ◽  
Ruiping Huang ◽  
Xiangqi Yi ◽  
Di Zhang ◽  
...  

AbstractMany marine organisms are exposed to decreasing O2 levels due to warming-induced expansion of hypoxic zones and ocean deoxygenation (DeO2). Nevertheless, effects of DeO2 on phytoplankton have been neglected due to technical bottlenecks on examining O2 effects on O2-producing organisms. Here we show that lowered O2 levels increased primary productivity of a coastal phytoplankton assemblage, and enhanced photosynthesis and growth in the coastal diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. Mechanistically, reduced O2 suppressed mitochondrial respiration and photorespiration of T. weissflogii, but increased the efficiency of their CO2 concentrating mechanisms (CCMs), effective quantum yield and improved light use efficiency, which was apparent under both ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations leading to ocean acidification (OA). While the elevated CO2 treatment partially counteracted the effect of low O2 in terms of CCMs activity, reduced levels of O2 still strongly enhanced phytoplankton primary productivity. This implies that decreased availability of O2 with progressive DeO2 could boost re-oxygenation by diatom-dominated phytoplankton communities, especially in hypoxic areas, with potentially profound consequences for marine ecosystem services in coastal and pelagic oceans.


2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Gabriela Novak ◽  
Dimitrios Kyriakis ◽  
Kamil Grzyb ◽  
Michela Bernini ◽  
Sophie Rodius ◽  
...  

AbstractParkinson’s disease (PD) is the second-most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons (mDA) in the midbrain. The underlying mechanisms are only partly understood and there is no treatment to reverse PD progression. Here, we investigated the disease mechanism using mDA neurons differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) carrying the ILE368ASN mutation within the PINK1 gene, which is strongly associated with PD. Single-cell RNA sequencing (RNAseq) and gene expression analysis of a PINK1-ILE368ASN and a control cell line identified genes differentially expressed during mDA neuron differentiation. Network analysis revealed that these genes form a core network, members of which interact with all known 19 protein-coding Parkinson’s disease-associated genes. This core network encompasses key PD-associated pathways, including ubiquitination, mitochondrial function, protein processing, RNA metabolism, and vesicular transport. Proteomics analysis showed a consistent alteration in proteins of dopamine metabolism, indicating a defect of dopaminergic metabolism in PINK1-ILE368ASN neurons. Our findings suggest the existence of a network onto which pathways associated with PD pathology converge, and offers an inclusive interpretation of the phenotypic heterogeneity of PD.


2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Xin Hua ◽  
Wei Song ◽  
Kangzong Wang ◽  
Xue Yin ◽  
Changqi Hao ◽  
...  

AbstractThe genes in polyphyllins pathway mixed with other steroid biosynthetic genes form an extremely complex biosynthetic network in Paris polyphylla with a giant genome. The lack of genomic data and tissue specificity causes the study of the biosynthetic pathway notably difficult. Here, we report an effective method for the prediction of key genes of polyphyllin biosynthesis. Full-length transcriptome from eight different organs via hybrid sequencing of next generation sequencingand third generation sequencing platforms annotated two 2,3-oxidosqualene cyclases (OSCs), 216 cytochrome P450s (CYPs), and 199 UDP glycosyltransferases (UGTs). Combining metabolic differences, gene-weighted co-expression network analysis, and phylogenetic trees, the candidate ranges of OSC, CYP, and UGT genes were further narrowed down to 2, 15, and 24, respectively. Beside the three previously characterized CYPs, we identified the OSC involved in the synthesis of cycloartenol and the UGT (PpUGT73CR1) at the C-3 position of diosgenin and pennogenin in P. polyphylla. This study provides an idea for the investigation of gene cluster deficiency biosynthesis pathways in medicinal plants.


2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Qingqing Fang ◽  
Yu Feng ◽  
Alan McNally ◽  
Zhiyong Zong

AbstractCarbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) has emerged as a severe global health challenge. We isolate and characterize two previously unidentified lytic phages, P24 and P39, with large burst sizes active against ST11 KL64, a major CRKP lineage. P24 and P39 represent species of the genera Przondovirus (Studiervirinae subfamily) and Webervirus (Drexlerviridae family), respectively. P24 and P39 together restrain CRKP growth to nearly 8 h. Phage-resistant mutants exhibit reduced capsule production and decreased virulence. Modifications in mshA and wcaJ encoding capsule polysaccharide synthesis mediate P24 resistance whilst mutations in epsJ encoding exopolysaccharide synthesis cause P39 resistance. We test P24 alone and together with P39 for decolonizing CRKP using mouse intestinal colonization models. Bacterial load shed decrease significantly in mice treated with P24 and P39. In conclusion, we report the characterization of two previously unidentified lytic phages against CRKP, revealing phage resistance mechanisms and demonstrating the potential of lytic phages for intestinal decolonization.


2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Hong Yu ◽  
Yanbin Niu ◽  
Guohua Jia ◽  
Yujie Liang ◽  
Baolin Chen ◽  
...  

AbstractRetinoic acid-related orphan receptor alpha (RORA) suppression is associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) development, although the mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we aim to investigate the potential effect and mechanisms of RORA suppression on autism-like behavior (ALB) through maternal diabetes-mediated mouse model. Our in vitro study in human neural progenitor cells shows that transient hyperglycemia induces persistent RORA suppression through oxidative stress-mediated epigenetic modifications and subsequent dissociation of octamer-binding transcription factor 3/4 from the RORA promoter, subsequently suppressing the expression of aromatase and superoxide dismutase 2. The in vivo mouse study shows that prenatal RORA deficiency in neuron-specific RORA null mice mimics maternal diabetes-mediated ALB; postnatal RORA expression in the amygdala ameliorates, while postnatal RORA knockdown mimics, maternal diabetes-mediated ALB in offspring. In addition, RORA mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells decrease to 34.2% in ASD patients (n = 121) compared to the typically developing group (n = 118), and the related Receiver Operating Characteristic curve shows good sensitivity and specificity with a calculated 84.1% of Area Under the Curve for ASD diagnosis. We conclude that maternal diabetes contributes to ALB in offspring through suppression of RORA and aromatase, RORA expression in PBMC could be a potential marker for ASD screening.


2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Madalena Cipriano ◽  
Katharina Schlünder ◽  
Christopher Probst ◽  
Kirstin Linke ◽  
Martin Weiss ◽  
...  

AbstractDisorders of the eye leading to visual impairment are a major issue that affects millions of people. On the other side ocular toxicities were described for e.g. molecularly targeted therapies in oncology and may hamper their development. Current ocular model systems feature a number of limitations affecting human-relevance and availability. To find new options for pharmacological treatment and assess mechanisms of toxicity, hence, novel complex model systems that are human-relevant and readily available are urgently required. Here, we report the development of a human immunocompetent Choroid-on-Chip (CoC), a human cell-based in vitro model of the choroid layer of the eye integrating melanocytes and microvascular endothelial cells, covered by a layer of retinal pigmented epithelial cells. Immunocompetence is achieved by perfusion of peripheral immune cells. We demonstrate controlled immune cell recruitment into the stromal compartments through a vascular monolayer and in vivo-like cytokine release profiles. To investigate applicability for both efficacy testing of immunosuppressive compounds as well as safety profiling of immunoactivating antibodies, we exposed the CoCs to cyclosporine and tested CD3 bispecific antibodies.


2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Andrei Kouranov ◽  
Charles Armstrong ◽  
Ashok Shrawat ◽  
Vladimir Sidorov ◽  
Scott Huesgen ◽  
...  

AbstractNaturally occurring chromosomal crossovers (CO) during meiosis are a key driver of genetic diversity. The ability to target CO at specific allelic loci in hybrid plants would provide an advantage to the plant breeding process by facilitating trait introgression, and potentially increasing the rate of genetic gain. We present the first demonstration of targeted CO in hybrid maize utilizing the CRISPR Cas12a system. Our experiments showed that stable and heritable targeted CO can be produced in F1 somatic cells using Cas12a at a significantly higher rate than the natural CO in the same interval. Molecular characterization of the recombinant plants demonstrated that the targeted CO were driven by the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) or HDR repair pathways, presumably during the mitotic cell cycle. These results are a step towards the use of RNA-guided nuclease technology to simplify the creation of targeted genome combinations in progeny and accelerate breeding.


2022 ◽  
Vol 5 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Sarah Séité ◽  
Mark C. Harrison ◽  
David Sillam-Dussès ◽  
Roland Lupoli ◽  
Tom J. M. Van Dooren ◽  
...  

AbstractKings and queens of eusocial termites can live for decades, while queens sustain a nearly maximal fertility. To investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying their long lifespan, we carried out transcriptomics, lipidomics and metabolomics in Macrotermes natalensis on sterile short-lived workers, long-lived kings and five stages spanning twenty years of adult queen maturation. Reproductives share gene expression differences from workers in agreement with a reduction of several aging-related processes, involving upregulation of DNA damage repair and mitochondrial functions. Anti-oxidant gene expression is downregulated, while peroxidability of membranes in queens decreases. Against expectations, we observed an upregulated gene expression in fat bodies of reproductives of several components of the IIS pathway, including an insulin-like peptide, Ilp9. This pattern does not lead to deleterious fat storage in physogastric queens, while simple sugars dominate in their hemolymph and large amounts of resources are allocated towards oogenesis. Our findings support the notion that all processes causing aging need to be addressed simultaneously in order to prevent it.


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