The increased popularity of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) combined with the difficulty of grafting have limited supplies of grafted trees in the United States. From 2011 to 2020, grafting was practiced for cultivar amplification after importation and cultivar trials in frost-prone northern New Mexico. Grafting success was related to not only grafting techniques but also climate factors. Bark grafting, whip/tongue grafting, and cleft grafting were commonly used in nurseries. Low temperatures had a critical role in jujube grafting success in marginal regions and were more important than the grafting technique. If frost occurs before or near the leafing time, then grafting should be delayed until the rootstocks are determined to be healthy and alive. If frost occurs after grafting, then grafting failure and/or thin and small plant percentages increased. If only branchlets appear after grafting, then pinching branchlets could stimulate new shoot growth.
. question the reliability of calibrated radiocarbon ages associated with human footprints discovered recently in White Sands National Park, New Mexico, USA. On the basis of the geologic, hydrologic, stratigraphic, and chronologic evidence, we maintain that the ages are robust and conclude that the footprints date to between ~23,000 and 21,000 years ago.
) question the veracity of calibrated radiocarbon ages used to constrain the antiquity of human trackways discovered recently at White Sands National Park (WHSA) Locality 2, New Mexico, USA (
). The ages were derived from seeds of the aquatic plant
, which they suggest may suffer from hard-water (or reservoir) effects, making them too old, potentially by thousands of years. We were well aware of this possibility, investigated it, and presented several lines of evidence that argued against such a problem. Here we respond to each of their four primary points.
. (Reports, 24 September 2021, p. 1528) report human footprints from Lake Otero, New Mexico, USA ~22,000 years ago. Critical assessment suggests that their radiocarbon chronology may be inaccurate. Reservoir effects may have caused radiocarbon ages to appear thousands of years too old. Independent verification of the ages of the footprint horizons is imperative and is possible through other means.
We describe a new species of the diatom genus Grunowia, G. mannii Kociolek & A.Danz, sp. nov., from a Miocene fossil deposit in New Mexico, USA. The species has wide fibulae, a keel that is off-center externally, with distinct proximal raphe ends, both internally and externally. The species is differentiated from others in the genus in the narrow valves that are swollen and rounded in the center. We formally transfer two species from Nitzschia to Grunowia, making the new combinations, Grunowia constricta (Chen & Zhu) Kociolek & A.Danz, comb. nov. and Grunowia pseudosinuata (Hamilton & Laird) Kociolek & A.Danz, comb. nov. We discuss the distribution of the genus over time and space. This report from the Miocene represents the oldest known member of the genus Grunowia in the fossil record.