old world
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mSystems ◽  
2022 ◽  
Nina B. Kreuzenbeck ◽  
Elena Seibel ◽  
Jan W. Schwitalla ◽  
Janis Fricke ◽  
Benjamin H. Conlon ◽  

The symbiosis between macrotermitinae termites and Termitomyces is obligate for both partners and is one of the most important contributors to biomass conversion in the Old World tropic’s ecosystems. To date, research efforts have dominantly focused on acquiring a better understanding of the degradative capabilities of Termitomyces to sustain the obligate nutritional symbiosis, but our knowledge of the small-molecule repertoire of the fungal cultivar mediating interspecies and interkingdom interactions has remained fragmented.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-11
Juan-Ramón Ferrer ◽  
Silvia Abella-Garcés ◽  
Raúl Serrano

Abstract Wineries in the “old world” export almost 40% of their production. This study analyzes the influence of vertical and horizontal networks on export performance. We draw on a sample of 183 Spanish wineries and examine the main independent variables using a two-step Heckman model. We find positive effects of horizontal networks and—at a somewhat lower level—downstream vertical networks on export performance. (JEL Classifications: L66, M16, Q13)

Genes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 119
Antoinette C. van der Kuyl

Simian endogenous retrovirus, SERV, is a successful germ line invader restricted to Old World monkey (OWM) species. (1) Background: The availability of high-quality primate genomes warrants a study of the characteristics, evolution, and distribution of SERV proviruses. (2) Methods: Cercopithecinae OWM genomes from public databases were queried for the presence of full-length SERV proviruses. A dataset of 81 Cer-SERV genomes was generated and analyzed. (3) Results: Full-length Cer-SERV proviruses were mainly found in terrestrial OWM, and less so in arboreal, forest- dwelling monkeys. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the existence of two genotypes, Cer-SERV-1 and Cer-SERV-2, with Cer-SERV-1 showing evidence of recent germ-line expansions. Long Terminal Repeat (LTR) variation indicated that most proviruses were of a similar age and were estimated to be between <0.3 and 10 million years old. Integrations shared between species were relatively rare. Sequence analysis further showed extensive CpG methylation-associated mutations, variable Primer Binding Site (PBS) use with Cer-SERV-1 using PBSlys3 and Cer-SERV-2 using PBSlys1,2, and the recent gain of LTR motifs for transcription factors active during embryogenesis in Cer-SERV-1. (4) Conclusions: sequence analysis of 81 SERV proviruses from Cercopithecinae OWM genomes provides evidence for the adaptation of this retrovirus to germ line reproduction.

2022 ◽  
Miguel R Chuapoco ◽  
Nicholas Flytzanis ◽  
Nick Goeden ◽  
J Christopher Octeau ◽  
Kristina M Roxas ◽  

Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) can enable robust and safe gene delivery to the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). While the scientific community has developed numerous neurotropic AAV variants for systemic gene-transfer to the rodent brain, there are few AAVs that efficiently access the CNS of higher order primates. We describe here AAV.CAP-Mac, an engineered AAV variant that enables systemic, brain-wide gene delivery in infants of two Old World primate species--the rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) and the green monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus). We identified CAP-Mac using a multi-species selection strategy, initially screening our library in the adult common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and narrowing our pool of test-variants for another round of selection in infant macaques. In individual characterization, CAP-Mac robustly transduces human neurons in vitro and Old World primate neurons in vivo, where it targets all lobes of cortex, the cerebellum, and multiple subcortical regions of disease relevance. We use CAP-Mac for Brainbow-like multicolor labeling of macaque neurons throughout the brain, enabling morphological reconstruction of both medium spiny neurons and cortical pyramidal cells. Because of its broad distribution throughout the brain and high neuronal efficiency in infant Old World primates compared to AAV9, CAP-Mac shows promise for researchers and clinicians alike to unlock novel, noninvasive access to the brain for efficient gene transfer.

2022 ◽  
Vol 31 (1-2) ◽  
pp. 11-44
Paul Lample

The disintegration of the old world order is increasingly evident in the inability of human beings to resolve their differences, as manifested in intractable disputes about knowledge, politics, morals, and economics. In the face of such challenges, the Bahá’í Faith seeks to unite humanity in the search for truth and the building of a just and peaceful world. The purpose of this paper is to explore how Bahá’ís expect to achieve these aims through the conscious and active transformation of the moral order—not by force or coercion but by example, persuasion, consensus, and cooperation.

2022 ◽  
pp. 15-29
Manuel J. Salesa ◽  
Stéphane Peigné ◽  
Mauricio Antón ◽  
Jorge Morales

2021 ◽  
Vol 24 (6) ◽  
pp. 147-154
Alexander Shumilin ◽  

The article examines the reasons that prompted the governments and expert circles of many EU countries to pay increased attention in the past two years to the activities of the Muslim Brotherhood (BM) religious and political association within the EU. According to the author, this is due not only to the terrorist attacks of Islamists in France and Austria in 2020, but also to the manifestations of the growing influence of this category of Muslim organizations and groups on the social and political life of the countries of the Old World. The article focuses on the analysis of the means, methods and mechanisms characteristic of the groupings associated with the structures of the Muslim Brotherhood in Europe, on their differences from similar organizations in the Middle East. The author turns to the history of the emergence and growth of the influence of the «brothers» in Europe in order to more thoroughly examine the phenomenon of today: while the authority and influence of the BM are noticeably falling in the Arab countries, in the Old World the situation is different for the «brothers» – in many cases they manage to hide their Islamist essence under the cover of left, «progressive» rhetoric, which allows them to fit into the current political and ideological discourse in the host countries. However, with the aggravation of intercivilizational relations in Europe, BM groups are increasingly forced to leave their traditional «hiding places», publicly claiming the status of «defenders of discredited Muslims», but in fact trying to legalize their radical views and positions. The resulting scale of their presence and influence in European societies noticeably frightens the establishment and the population of these countries. The author comes to the conclusion that at the current stage, an aggravation of the confrontation between the political elites in the EU countries and the BM structures is inevitable

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