exchange coupling
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2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 6
Jacques Curély

In earlier work, we previously established a formalism that allows to express the exchange energy J vs. fundamental molecular integrals without crystal field, for a fragment A–X–B, where A and B are 3d1 ions and X is a closed-shell diamagnetic ligand. In this article, we recall this formalism and give a physical interpretation: we may rigorously predict the ferromagnetic (J < 0) or antiferromagnetic (J > 0) character of the isotropic (Heisenberg) spin-spin exchange coupling. We generalize our results to ndm ions (3 £ n £ 5, 1 £ m £ 10). By introducing a crystal field we show that, starting from an isotropic (Heisenberg) exchange coupling when there is no crystal field, the appearance of a crystal field induces an anisotropy of exchange coupling, thus leading to a z-z (Ising-like) coupling or a x-y one. Finally, we discuss the effects of a weak crystal field magnitude (3d ions) compared to a stronger (4d ions) and even stronger one (5d ions). In the last step, we are then able to write the corresponding Hamiltonian exchange as a spin-spin one.

2021 ◽  
Vol 130 (24) ◽  
pp. 243901
Zhiming Dai ◽  
Wei Liu ◽  
Xiaotian Zhao ◽  
Long Liu ◽  
Yuhang Song ◽  

Maokang Shen ◽  
Xiangyu Li ◽  
Yue Zhang ◽  
Xiaofei Yang ◽  
Shi Chen

Abstract In the “Beyond Moore” era, the information device is expected to exhibit advantages including small sizes, high processing speed, and low power and dissipation. The novel magnetic information device with these advantages is made of heavy metal(HM)/ferromagnet (FM) composite. Owing to the asymmetric structure, the anisotropic exchange coupling named the interfacial Dzyaloshinskii–Moriya interaction (iDMI) is generated at the HM/FM interface. This iDMI influences the magnetic dynamics including ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), spin wave, and the motion of chiral DWs. These magnetic dynamic behaviors are the bases of the functions of novel magnetic information devices. Therefore, the influence of iDMI on the magnetic dynamics has attracted wide attention in recent years. In this topical review, we give a detailed introduction and discussion about recent investigation on the iDMI-relevant magnetic dynamics of the HM/FM bilayer system. This review consists of five sections: (1). the introduction about the background, the basic theory of magnetic dynamics and DMI; (2). the review about the effect of iDMI on the propagation of spin wave. Owing to the iDMI, the dispersion relationship of spin wave is asymmetric. This not only offers a precise method for measuring the iDMI constant, but also gives rise to potential application for novel magnonic devices. (3). the review about the effect of iDMI on the FMR. Unique iDMI-relevant mode was observed in the FMR spectra owing to the nonparallel alignment of magnetic moments. (4). the review about the motion of DWs with chiral structure due to iDMI. The iDMI plays a fundamental role in the high velocity of the chiral DWs. Meanwhile, the iDMI results in the tilting of DW plane, and the mechanism has been widely investigated. The tilting of the DW plane may be depressed by the interlayer exchange coupling. (5). finally, we summarize the review and give an outlook.

2021 ◽  
Vol 104 (6) ◽  
Ya Wen ◽  
Xiangyu Li ◽  
Guiying Zhang ◽  
Kaifeng Zhao

Y.B. Guo ◽  
X. Li ◽  
W.H. Xie ◽  
C. Yang ◽  
C.L. Jia ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 38 (12) ◽  
pp. 128501
Xiufeng Han ◽  
Yu Zhang ◽  
Yizhan Wang ◽  
Li Huang ◽  
Qinli Ma ◽  

Abstract Detection of ultralow magnetic field requires magnetic sensors with high sensitivity and low noise level, especially for low operating frequency applications. We investigated the transport properties of tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) sensors based on the double indirect exchange coupling effect. The TMR ratio of about 150% was obtained in the magnetic tunnel junctions and linear response to an in-plane magnetic field was successfully achieved. A high sensitivity of 1.85%/Oe was achieved due to a designed soft pinned sensing layer of CoFeB/NiFe/Ru/IrMn. Furthermore, the voltage output sensitivity and the noise level of 10.7 mV/V/Oe, 10 nT/Hz1/2 at 1 Hz and 3.3 nT/Hz1/2 at 10 Hz were achieved in Full Wheatstone Bridge configuration. This kind of magnetic sensors can be used in the field of smart grid for current detection and sensing.

2021 ◽  
pp. 2109828
Shan Lin ◽  
Zhiwen Wang ◽  
Qinghua Zhang ◽  
Shengru Chen ◽  
Qiao Jin ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (5) ◽  
A.D.K. Finck ◽  
S. Carnevale ◽  
D. Klaus ◽  
C. Scerbo ◽  
J. Blair ◽  

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