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2022 ◽  
Vol 38 ◽  
pp. 100933
Ming-yu Anthony Chuang ◽  
Emmanuel S. Gnanamanickam ◽  
Jonathan Karnon ◽  
Kristina Lambrakis ◽  
Matthew Horsfall ◽  

Elena Campello ◽  
Claudia Maria Radu ◽  
Chiara Simion ◽  
Luca Spiezia ◽  
Cristiana Bulato ◽  

Plasma concentrations of extracellular vesicles (EVs) originating from cells involved in COVID-19-associated coagulopathy (CAC), their longitudinal trend and association with clinical outcomes were evaluated. Blood samples of consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to a medical Unit were longitudinally collected within 48 h of admission, at discharge and 30 days post-discharge. EVs were analyzed using high sensitivity flow cytometry and phospholipid-dependent clotting time (PPL). The following EVs were measured: endothelium-, platelet-, leukocyte-derived, bearing tissue factor (TF)+, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2)+, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGF-β)+ and SARS-CoV-2-nucleoprotein (NP)+. 91 patients were recruited for baseline EV analysis (mean age 67 ± 14 years, 50.5% male) and 48 underwent the longitudinal evaluation. From baseline to 30-days post-discharge, we observed significantly decreased plasma concentrations of endothelium-derived EVs (E-Selectin+), endothelium-derived bearing TF (E-Selectin+ TF+), endothelium-derived bearing ACE2 (E-Selectin+ACE2+) and leukocyte-EVs bearing TF (CD45+TF+), p < 0.001, p = 0.03, p = 0.001, p = 0.001, respectively. Conversely, platelet-derived (P-Selectin+) and leukocyte-derived EVs (CD45+) increased from baseline to 30-days post-discharge (p = 0.038 and 0.032, respectively). EVs TF+, ACE2+, PDGF-β+, and SARS-CoV-2-NP+ did not significantly change during the monitoring. PPL increased from baseline to 30-days post-discharge (+ 6.3 s, p = 0.006). P-Selectin + EVs >1,054/µL were associated with thrombosis (p = 0.024), E-Selectin + EVs ≤531/µL with worsening/death (p 0.026) and 30-days P-Selectin+ and CD45 + EVs with persistent symptoms (p < 0.0001). We confirmed increased EVs originating from cells involved in CAC at admission and discharge. EVs derived from activated pericytes and expressing SARS-CoV-2-NP were also detected. 30-days post-discharge, endothelium-EVs decreased, while platelet- and leukocyte-EVs further increased, indicating that cellular activation persists long after the acute phase.

Wenjing Zhao ◽  
Jun Morinaga ◽  
Shigekazu Ukawa ◽  
Motoyoshi Endo ◽  
Hiroya Yamada ◽  

Abstract Aging is important medical and social problem. Excessive angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL)-2 signaling causes chronic tissue inflammation, promoting development and progression of aging-related diseases. Moreover, circulating ANGPTL2 levels reportedly predict risk of some aging-related diseases and subsequent death. However, there are as yet no reports of whether circulating ANGPTL2 levels predict vital prognosis in younger-old, community-dwelling populations. This study investigated associations between plasma ANGPTL2 levels and all-cause and specific-cause mortality in this population. The case-cohort study was abstracted from an on-going, age-specific prospective cohort study: the New Integrated Suburban Seniority Investigation Project. This project enrolled 3073 participants aged 64 years at the beginning of the investigation from 1996 through 2005. A sub-cohort of 714 randomly sampled participants plus 387 cases representing deceased participants followed through 2015 underwent survival analysis. Plasma ANGPTL2 concentrations were positively associated with >80% and 100% higher risk of all-cause mortality and cancer mortality, respectively, after adjustment for gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, walking time, sleep duration, caloric intake, medical status, disease history, BMI, and triglyceride, creatinine, uric acid, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein levels. More robust association between ANGPTL2 levels and all-cause and cancer mortality was seen in subjects with either frailties or with lifestyles of heavier drinking or current smoking. Elevated plasma ANGPTL2 levels are associated with high all-cause and cancer mortality in a community-dwelling sample of younger-old adults. These findings expand our knowledge of human aging and associated diseases.

Diagnostics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 214
Dimitra-Ifigeneia Matara ◽  
Abraham Pouliakis ◽  
Theodoros Xanthos ◽  
Rozeta Sokou ◽  
Georgios Kafalidis ◽  

The microbiome is vital for the proper function of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and the maintenance of overall wellbeing. Gut ischemia may lead to disruption of the intestinal mucosal barrier, resulting in bacterial translocation. In this systematic review, according to PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis) guidelines, we constructed a search query using the PICOT (Patient, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome, Time) framework. Eligible studies reported in PubMed, up to April 2021 were selected, from which, 57 publications’ data were included. According to these, escape of intraluminal potentially harmful factors into the systemic circulation and their transmission to distant organs and tissues, in utero, at birth, or immediately after, can be caused by reduced blood oxygenation. Various factors are involved in this situation. The GIT is a target organ, with high sensitivity to ischemia–hypoxia, and even short periods of ischemia may cause significant local tissue damage. Fetal hypoxia and perinatal asphyxia reduce bowel motility, especially in preterm neonates. Despite the fact that microbiome arouse the interest of scientists in recent decades, the pathophysiologic patterns which mediate in perinatal hypoxia/asphyxia conditions and gut function have not yet been well understood.

2022 ◽  
Jayanthi Shastri ◽  
Sachee Agrawal ◽  
Nirjhar Chatterjee ◽  
Harsha Gupta

Background: Accurate rapid antibody detection kits requiring minimum infrastructure are beneficial in detecting post-vaccination antibodies in large populations. ChAdOx1-nCOV (COVISHIELD) and BBV-152 (Covaxin) vaccines are primarily used in India. Methods: In this single-centre prospective study, performance of Meril ABFind was investigated by comparing with Abbott SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant (Abbott Quant), GenScript cPass SARS-CoV-2 neutralization antibody detection kit (GenScript cPass), and COVID Kawach MERILISA (MERILISA) in 62 vaccinated health care workers (HCW) and 40 pre-pandemic samples. Results: In the vaccinated subjects, Meril ABFind kit displayed high sensitivity of 93.3% (CI, 89.83%-96.77%), 94.92% (CI, 91.88%-97.96%), and 90.3% (CI, 86.20%-94.4%) in comparison to Abbott Quant, MERILISA, and GenScript cPass respectively. The results of the Meril ABFind in the COVISHIELD-vaccinated group were excellent with 100% sensitivity in comparison to the other three kits. In the Covaxin-vaccinated group, Meril ABFind displayed sensitivity ranging from 80% to 88.9%. In control samples, there were no false positives detected by Meril ABFind, while Abbott Quant, MERILISA, and GenScript cPass reported 2.5%, 10.0%, and 12.5% false positives, respectively. In the pre-pandemic controls, specificity of Meril ABFind was 100%, Abbott Quant 97.5%, MERILISA 90%, and GenScript cPass 87.5%. Conclusion: The Meril ABFind kit demonstrated satisfactory performance when compared with the three commercially available kits and was the only kit without false positives in the pre-pandemic samples. This makes it a viable option for rapid diagnosis of post vaccination antibodies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 38 (3) ◽  
Liping Lu ◽  
Xuming Pan

Non-contrast MRI is used for identifying patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), especially among high-risk patients with cirrhosis or chronic viral hepatitis. The accuracy of non-contrast MRI has been investigated with varying results. We performed this meta-analysis to consolidate the evidence on the accuracy of non-contrast MRI for the detection of HCC. We conducted a systematic search in the databases of PubMed Central, SCOPUS, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane from inception till November 2020. We used the STATA software “Midas” package for meta-analysis. We included 15 studies with 3,756 patients. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of non-contrast MRI for HCC detection were 84% (95%CI, 78%-88%) and 94% (95%CI, 91%-97%). The positive likelihood ratio was 14.9 (95% CI, 9.0-24.7) and the negative one 0.17 (0.12-0.23). The overall quality of the studies was high. We found significant heterogeneity based on chi-square test results and I2 statistic > 75%. Deek’s test showed the absence of publication bias. We found that non-contrast MRI has high sensitivity and specificity as a tool for detecting HCC. Studies exploring its accuracy in different ethnic populations are required to strengthen the evidence. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5142 How to cite this:Lu L, Pan X. Accuracy of Non-Contrast MRI for the Detection of Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Pak J Med Sci. 2022;38(3):---------. doi: https://doi.org/10.12669/pjms.38.3.5142 This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Jun Lu ◽  
Weihua Fan ◽  
Zihui Huang ◽  
Ke Fan ◽  
Jianhua Dong ◽  

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