Electric Field
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Xiongwen Chen ◽  
Qian Wang ◽  
Ping Wu ◽  
Guanghui Zhou

Abstract We propose an AA-stacked multilayer graphene nanoribbon with two symmetrical armchair edges as a multiple flat-band (FB) material. Using the tight-binding Hamiltonian and Green’s function method, we find that the FBs are complete and merged into many dispersive bands. The FBs cause multiple strongly localized states (SLSs) at the sites of the odd lines in every sublayer and a giant optical absorption (GOA) at energy point 2t, where t is the electronic intralayer hopping energy between two nearest-neighbor sites. By driving an electric field perpendicular to the ribbon plane, the bandgaps of the FBs are tunable. Accordingly, the positions of the SLSs in the energy regime can be shifted. However, the position of the GOA is robust against such field, but its strength exhibits a collapse behavior with a fixed quantization step. On the contrary, by driving an electric field parallel to the ribbon plane, the completeness of FBs is destroyed. Resultantly, the SLSs and GOA are suppressed and even quenched. Therefore, such ribbons may be excellent candidates for the design of the controllable information-transmission and optical-electric nanodevices.

Takahiro Tsuzuki ◽  
Shuji Ogata ◽  
Ryo Kobayashi ◽  
Masayuki Uranagase ◽  
Seiya Shimoi ◽  

BaTiO3 is one of the well-known ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials, which has been widely used in various devices. However, the microscopic mechanism of the ferroelectric domain growth is not understood well. We investigated the effects of point defects, mono- and di-vacancies of Ba, Ti, and O, on the domain growth of BaTiO3 using molecular dynamics simulation with the core-shell inter-atomic potential. We found the following: s(1) One kind of monovacancy, VO1, located on the TiO plane perpendicular to the applied electric field direction, acts to hinder the polarization inversion induced by the applied electric field. The monopole electric field produced by VO1 either hinders or assists the local polarization inversion in accordance with the local intensity of the total electric field. (2) The 1st-neighbor divacancies VBa-VO and VTi-VO as compared to the 2nd-neighbor divacancies asymmetrically affect the domain growth with respect to the applied electric field, making the hysteresis behavior of applied electric field vs. polarization relation. The domain grows even at a small electric field when the directions of the applied electric field and the divacancy dipole are mutually the same. (3) The domain growth speed towards the applied electric field direction is about 2 orders of magnitude higher than that towards the perpendicular direction.

Atanu Betal ◽  
Jayanta Bera ◽  
Mahfooz Alam ◽  
Appala Naidu Gandi ◽  
Satyajit Sahu

Luis Gustavo Martinez ◽  
Akash Dhruv ◽  
Elias Balaras ◽  
Michael Keidar

Abstract This work presents a model for an atmospheric Helium plasma interacting with normal and cancer cells. This interaction is simulated through the expansion and impingement of a gaseous jet onto targets with varying electrical permittivity. Simulation results show that for a plasma jet impinging onto two targets with different permittivity placed axis-symmetrically relative to the stagnation point of impingement, the jet is biased toward the target with lower permittivity when the target acts as a floating potential. This trend is reversed when the back surface of the target is grounded. In the case of a floating target, higher target permittivity yields a higher positive surface potential as the material experiences higher polarization in response to the net flux of electrons from the plasma onto the surface. Because of this higher surface potential, targets with higher permittivity generate a smaller electric field in the discharge column relative to materials with lower permittivity. When the back surface of the target is ground, the trend is reversed, with polarization occurring primarily on the back surface due to the response to the reservoir of positive charges introduced by ground. In the ground case, the material experiences more negative charging the front surface which induces a lower electric potential. As a result, the material with higher permittivity and a grounded back surface attracts plasma organization at the interface because of the higher local electric field. These numerical findings support experimental results presented by other researchers, which demonstrate selectivity of plasma jets towards some cancer cells more than others. The mechanism introduced here may help inform targeted treatment of specific cells, including those reported to be more resistant to plasma jets.

2022 ◽  
Xu Meng ◽  
Z H Wang ◽  
Dengke Zhang

Abstract In the future application of nuclear fusion, the liquid metal flows are considered to be an attractive option of the first wall of the Tokamak which can effectively remove impurities and improve the confinement of plasma. Moreover, the flowing liquid metal can solve the problem of the corrosion of the solid first wall due to high thermal load and particle discharge. In the magnetic confinement fusion reactor, the liquid metal flow experiences strong magnetic and electric, fields from plasma. In the present paper, an experiment has been conducted to explore the influence of electric and magnetic fields on liquid metal flow. The direction of electric current is perpendicular to that of the magnetic field direction, and thus the Lorentz force is upward or downward. A laser profilometer (LP) based on the laser triangulation technique is used to measure the thickness of the liquid film of Galinstan. The phenomenon of the liquid column from the free surface is observed by the high-speed camera under various flow rates, intensities of magnetic field and electric field. Under a constant external magnetic field, the liquid column appears at the position of the incident current once the external current exceeds a critical value, which is inversely proportional to the magnetic field. The thickness of the flowing liquid film increases with the intensities of magnetic field, electric field, and Reynolds number. The thickness of the liquid film at the incident current position reaches a maximum value when the force is upward. The distribution of liquid metal in the channel presents a parabolic shape with high central and low marginal. Additionally, the splashing, i.e., the detachment of liquid metal is not observed in the present experiment, which suggests a higher critical current for splashing to occur.

Alireza Baradaran ◽  
Mehdi Ghaffarian

Abstract Using the tight-binding model and density functional theory, the topological invariant of the two-dimensional (2D) group III-V and IV-IV compounds are studied in the absence and the presence of an external perpendicular electric field and spin-orbit coupling. It will be recognized that a critical value of these parameters changes the topological invariant of 2D graphene-like compounds. The significant effects of an external electric field and spin-orbit coupling are considered to the two-center overlap integrals of the Slater-Koster model involved in band structures, changing band-gap, and tuning the topological phase transition between ordinary and quantum spin Hall regime. These declare the good consistency between two theories: tight-binding and density functional. So, this study reveals topological phase transition in these materials. Our finding paves a way to extend an effective Hamiltonian, and may instantly clear some computation aspects of the study in the field of spintronic based on the first-principles methods.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262555
Md. Kabir Ahamed ◽  
Marzuk Ahmed ◽  
Mohammad Abu Sayem Karal

Electropermeabilization is a promising phenomenon that occurs when pulsed electric field with high frequency is applied to cells/vesicles. We quantify the required values of pulsed electric fields for the rupture of cell-sized giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) which are prepared under various surface charges, cholesterol contents and osmotic pressures. The probability of rupture and the average time of rupture are evaluated under these conditions. The electric field changes from 500 to 410 Vcm-1 by varying the anionic lipid mole fraction from 0 to 0.60 for getting the maximum probability of rupture (i.e., 1.0). In contrast, the same probability of rupture is obtained for changing the electric field from 410 to 630 Vcm-1 by varying the cholesterol mole fraction in the membranes from 0 to 0.40. These results suggest that the required electric field for the rupture decreases with the increase of surface charge density but increases with the increase of cholesterol. We also quantify the electric field for the rupture of GUVs containing anionic mole fraction of 0.40 under various osmotic pressures. In the absence of osmotic pressure, the electric field for the rupture is obtained 430 Vcm-1, whereas the field is 300 Vcm-1 in the presence of 17 mOsmL-1, indicating the instability of GUVs at higher osmotic pressures. These investigations open an avenue of possibilities for finding the electric field dependent rupture of cell-like vesicles along with the insight of biophysical and biochemical processes.

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