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2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 203-221
Kaye Louise Garcia ◽  
Karissa Habaña ◽  
Canto, Danielle

Global labor mobility and Overseas Filipino workers have been a topic of interest due to its rapid growth and its apparent links with development goals. Among the 197 countries in the world, the Philippines has one of the highest rates of migration. In this paper, the researchers have examined the statistical relationship between migration and poverty through a study, using panel data from the years 2006, 2008, 2012, 2015, and 2018 in the Philippines. Specifically, the paper examined the degree of impact of migration on poverty using the GINI coefficient and GRDP as determinants for poverty, whilst Remittances is the constant variable used. The study aimed to determine whether remittances reduce poverty as Overseas Filipino Workers continue to increase yearly. The end results showed that there is a relationship amongst poverty, international labor migration, and remittances via the fixed panel data done but show a low significance level among the said variables. Thus, there is a relationship within the variables but a low significance level to the poverty in the Philippines.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Franz Neuberger ◽  
Mariana Grgic ◽  
Svenja Diefenbacher ◽  
Florian Spensberger ◽  
Ann-Sophie Lehfeld ◽  

Abstract Background During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, German early childhood education and care (ECEC) centres organised children’s attendance in different ways, they reduced opening hours, provided emergency support for a few children, or closed completely. Further, protection and hygiene measures like fixed children-staff groups, ventilation and surface disinfection were introduced in ECEC centres. To inform or modify public health measures in ECEC, we investigate the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infections among children and staff in ECEC centres in light of social determinants (i.e. the socioeconomic status of the children) and recommended structural and hygiene measures. We focus on the question if the relevant factors differ between the 2nd (when no variant of concern (VOC) circulated) and the 3rd wave (when VOC B.1.1.7 (Alpha) predominated). Methods Based on panel data from a weekly online survey of ECEC centre managers (calendar week 36/2020 to 22/2021, ongoing) including approx. 8500 centres, we estimate the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections in children and staff using random-effect-within-between (REWB) panel models for count data in the 2nd and 3rd wave. Results ECEC centres with a high proportion of children with low socioeconomic status (SES) have a higher risk of infections in staff and children. Strict contact restrictions between groups like fixed group assignments for children and fixed staff assignments to groups prevent infections. Both effects tend to be stronger in the 3rd wave. Conclusion ECEC centres with a large proportion of children with a low SES background and lack of using fixed child/staff cohorts experience higher COVID-19 rates. Over the long run, centres should be supported in maintaining recommended measures. Preventive measures such as the vaccination of staff should be prioritised in centres with large proportions of low SES children.


This paper aims to investigate structural convergence in selected African countries over the period 1994-2019. Using panel data for 48 African countries and several estimation methods [Panel-Corrected Standard Errors (PCSE), Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS), tobit model, instrumental variable, and Granger non-causality], the results show the existence of the phenomenon of sectoral structural convergence in Africa, i.e. a greater similarity in sectoral structures while income gaps are narrowing. The paper also highlights the service sector's low relative productivity level and industrial sector's low labor force attractiveness despite a significant shift in labor from the agricultural sector and a higher level of relative productivity respectively. To address this issue, the development and acquisition of human and physical capital would be necessary to develop the industrial sector and increase the service sector's productivity.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yunpeng Sun ◽  
Haoning Li ◽  
Yuning Cao

The effect of COVID-induced public anxiety on stock markets, particularly in European stock market returns, is examined in this research. The search volumes for the notion of COVID-19 gathered by Google Trends and Wikipedia were used as proxies for COVID-induced public anxiety. COVID-induced public anxiety was shown to be linked with negative returns in European stock markets when a panel data method was used to a sample of data from 14 European stock markets from January 2, 2020 to September 17, 2020. Using an automated trading system, we used this finding to suggest investment methods based on COVID-induced anxiety. The findings of back-testing indicate that these techniques have the potential to generate exceptional profits. These results have significant consequences for government officials, the media, and investors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-10
Fucheng Yang ◽  
Guoyong Liu

In order to explore the spillover effect of urbanization on rural land transfer, this paper uses the panel data of various regions and cities in Xinjiang from 2008 to 2018. Moran's I method is used to test and analyze the spatial correlation between urbanization and farmland transfer. Intelligent computing SDM is used to analyze the spillover effect of urbanization on farmland transfer. The results show that there is spatial correlation between farmland transfers in Xinjiang. There is spatial heterogeneity in the spatial agglomeration of urbanization and farmland transfer in northern and southern Xinjiang. The content of this paper can provide some reference and ideas for follow-up research.

Danilo Serani

Abstract The spread of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in 2020 was the impetus for an exogenous shock. In addition to the disruption brought on by the spread of COVID-19, conspiracy theories flourished on many aspects of the disease. However, the association between belief in conspiracy theories and voting behaviour has not been studied sufficiently, especially in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper investigates the association between a belief in conspiracy theories and an intention to vote for populist parties (PPs). This association is analysed in a case study of Italian voters, where PPs can be found in the government and in the opposition. By conducting a cross-sectional analysis during the third wave of panel data fielded in December 2020, this article shows that individuals who have anti-vax attitudes and who also have a higher propensity to believe in conspiracy theories are more likely to vote for PPs, although it is worth considering the roles PPs play in either the government or in the opposition.

Mathematics ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 242
Marina Abramova ◽  
Dmitri Artemenko ◽  
Konstantin Krinichansky

Contemporary literature continues to foster discussion whether financial development is important for economic growth. In the clash of theoretical arguments, the prevailing idea is that finance exerts a direct positive influence on GDP growth. However, the presence of theoretical counterarguments and contradictory results of empirical studies suggest that scientists, in search of an answer about the direction and power of the net effect, should develop methods of empirical analysis, and the very mystery of the relationship between finance and growth will finally be solved exclusively empirically. In this paper, the authors contribute to the development of the ‘finance-growth’ literature by answering some existing questions concerning the transmission channels from finance to growth, relying on more recent data compared to already conducted studies. We use panel data covering the period 1995 to 2019 for 168 countries. In addition, the paper touches on the problem of studying the exogenous conditions of such channels, considering the assumption that among these conditions there may be those that hinder the impact of financial deepening on economic growth. Our focus is on monetary conditions, and in the empirical part of the study, we touch upon the problem of the influence of price stability on the operation of these transmission channels. The methods of the conducted study are based on the dynamic panel data analysis techniques (System GMM). The novelty of this paper lies in the development of the modern theory of the financial sector transmission mechanism in the economic growth context. The main result of the study is that productivity channel is the most reliable transmission channel of financial deepening to economic growth. Furthermore, the effectiveness of this channel remains virtually unaffected by inflation. The channel of capital accumulation should be considered less reliable (in terms of statistical reliability of estimates obtained), but it has turned out to be a more economically significant transmission channel. This channel is sensitive to the inflation factor in certain categories of countries. Finally, as follows from the estimates gained, the non-linearity of the “finance-growth” relationship can be explained by the non-linearity of the variable responsible for the capital accumulation channel.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 36
Roger Hosein ◽  
Leera Boodram ◽  
George Saridakis

The motivation for this study hinges around the fact that Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) is suffering from the Dutch disease which inadvertently hinders the growth of non-energy exports. This paper examines measures that can be adopted for a small petroleum-exporting economy to dampen the effect of Dutch disease by promoting non-energy trade. This paper is novel and contributes to the literature in using panel data for the T&T case, as it investigates the effect of a devaluation of the TT dollar in order to stimulate non-energy exports (a combination of agriculture and manufacturing trade). Note that previous studies would have examined the Marshall–Lerner condition on the aggregate trade balance which is heavily influenced by energy revenues. The panel autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) method is used for ten of T&T’s main trading partners for the period 1991 to 2019 to establish findings. The results show that the Marshall–Lerner condition does not hold for aggregate trade in the long run, as expected. However, when non-energy trade is isolated, it is found that a devaluation of the TT dollar does have a positive impact on non-energy trade and the Marshall–Lerner condition holds. Other measures are also recommended to stimulate non-energy exports in the long run.

Lely Indriaty ◽  

This study aimed at analyzing three different turnovers of current asset elements: the inventory turnover, the cash turnover, and the receivable turnover on profitability. Data is taken in the form of financial statements from the public companies of the telecommunication sector during four quarters of 2020. The panel data is processed from 9 companies or 36 observations using the Eview9 application and produced the fixed effect model as the best regression. The results indicate that the cash turnover has a significantly positive effect on profitability, whereas the inventory turnover and the receivable turnover have not significantly any effect on profitability. Therefore, the study concluded that the cash turnover was the one of current assets turnover that effected on the profitability of the public company telecommunication sector in Indonesia. It implied to the public companies of telecommunication sectors to choose the appropriate turnover model to achieve the maximum profitability during the Covid-19 pandemic.

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