composition analysis
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Geoderma ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 409 ◽  
pp. 115604
Radu Gabriel Pîrnău ◽  
Cristian Valeriu Patriche ◽  
Bogdan Roșca ◽  
Dragoș Alexandru Mirea ◽  
Vasile Diaconu ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Weiwei Shi ◽  
Lin Zhang

Since the reform and opening up, China’s rapid economic growth mainly depends on the industrial development mode of “high energy consumption and high pollution,” which has caused serious haze pollution. In order to achieve the goal of haze control and sustainable development, we need to give full play to the role of technological innovation. Empirical analysis of the haze control effect of technological innovation has theoretical significance and practical value. Based on the panel data of 30 provinces in China from 2005 to 2018 and the PM2.5 concentration data published by the atmospheric composition analysis group of Dalhousie University, this study selects R&D personnel input and technology market turnover to represent the level of technological innovation and uses the panel data model, threshold effect model, and spatial Durbin model to empirically analyze the impact of technological innovation on haze pollution control. The empirical results show that 1) technological innovation can significantly reduce the PM2.5 concentration of the province, showing a positive haze control effect; 2) technological innovation indicates a negative indirect effect on PM2.5 concentration, confirming the “technology spillover effect,” that is, technological innovation also has a haze control effect on the surrounding provinces; 3) with the increase in the province’s economic aggregate, the haze control effect of technological innovation shows a trend of “high low high,” and the role of technological innovation is the lowest in the stage of economic transformation; and 4) from the perspective of regional differentiation, the haze control effect of technological innovation is the largest in the central region, and the smallest in the western region. Technological innovation indicates a positive haze control effect on all regions at all stages of economic development. This study provides policy suggestions for the government and enterprises to use innovation for cleaner production and sustainable development.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Dongxue Zhang ◽  
Wenyan Liu ◽  
Li Peng ◽  
Haiyan Wang ◽  
Mei Lin ◽  

Abstract Background To investigate the difference in the structural composition of salivary flora between chronic periodontitis patients with and without diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods Thirty salivary samples of 15 chronic periodontitis patients with DN (DN group) and 15 chronic periodontitis patients with diabetes but without DN (DM group) were subjected to pyrosequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified 16 s ribosomal RNA genes. After diversity testing, the differential flora were analyzed. The sequencing results were compared with GenBank database to determine the type of differential flora using species composition analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, principal co-ordinate analysis, and species difference analysis. Results There were significant between-group differences with respect to Gemella, Selenomonas spp, Lactobacillales_unclassified, Bacteria-unclassified and Abiotrophia (p < 0.05). Compared with DM group, the relative abundance of Selenomonas spp. in DN group was significantly higher; the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of Selenomonas spp. was 0.713 (P < 0.05). Multi-level biological identification and feature maps indicated that Selenomonas spp. might be used as a potential biomarker for DN patients. On binary logistic regression analysis, increase of Selenomonas spp. was related with DN. Conclusions We found significant between-group differences in the structural composition of oral flora. The increase in the relative abundance of Selenomonas spp. may be associated with DN in patients with chronic periodontitis.

Polymers ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 326
Halimatuddahliana Nasution ◽  
Esam Bashir Yahya ◽  
H. P. S. Abdul Khalil ◽  
Marwan Abdulhakim Shaah ◽  
A. B. Suriani ◽  

Cellulose nanofibers (CNFs) are the most advanced bio-nanomaterial utilized in various applications due to their unique physical and structural properties, renewability, biodegradability, and biocompatibility. It has been isolated from diverse sources including plants as well as textile wastes using different isolation techniques, such as acid hydrolysis, high-intensity ultrasonication, and steam explosion process. Here, we planned to extract and isolate CNFs from carpet wastes using a supercritical carbon dioxide (Sc.CO2) treatment approach. The mechanism of defibrillation and defragmentation caused by Sc.CO2 treatment was also explained. The morphological analysis of bleached fibers showed that Sc.CO2 treatment induced several longitudinal fractions along with each fiber due to the supercritical condition of temperature and pressure. Such conditions removed th fiber’s impurities and produced more fragile fibers compared to untreated samples. The particle size analysis and Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEM) confirm the effect of Sc.CO2 treatment. The average fiber length and diameter of Sc.CO2 treated CNFs were 53.72 and 7.14 nm, respectively. In comparison, untreated samples had longer fiber length and diameter (302.87 and 97.93 nm). The Sc.CO2-treated CNFs also had significantly higher thermal stability by more than 27% and zeta potential value of −38.9± 5.1 mV, compared to untreated CNFs (−33.1 ± 3.0 mV). The vibrational band frequency and chemical composition analysis data confirm the presence of cellulose function groups without any contamination with lignin and hemicellulose. The Sc.CO2 treatment method is a green approach for enhancing the isolation yield of CNFs from carpet wastes and produce better quality nanocellulose for advanced applications.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yiran Zhou ◽  
Qinghua Cui ◽  
Yuan Zhou

tRNA-derived fragments (tRFs) constitute a novel class of small non-coding RNA cleaved from tRNAs. In recent years, researches have shown the regulatory roles of a few tRFs in cancers, illuminating a new direction for tRF-centric cancer researches. Nonetheless, more specific screening of tRFs related to oncogenesis pathways, cancer progression stages and cancer prognosis is continuously demanded to reveal the landscape of the cancer-associated tRFs. In this work, by combining the clinical information recorded in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the tRF expression profiles curated by MINTbase v2.0, we systematically screened 1,516 cancer-associated tRFs (ca-tRFs) across seven cancer types. The ca-tRF set collectively combined the differentially expressed tRFs between cancer samples and control samples, the tRFs significantly correlated with tumor stage and the tRFs significantly correlated with patient survival. By incorporating our previous tRF-target dataset, we found the ca-tRFs tend to target cancer-associated genes and onco-pathways like ATF6-mediated unfolded protein response, angiogenesis, cell cycle process regulation, focal adhesion, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway, cellular senescence and FoxO signaling pathway across multiple cancer types. And cell composition analysis implies that the expressions of ca-tRFs are more likely to be correlated with T-cell infiltration. We also found the ca-tRF expression pattern is informative to prognosis, suggesting plausible tRF-based cancer subtypes. Together, our systematic analysis demonstrates the potentially extensive involvements of tRFs in cancers, and provides a reasonable list of cancer-associated tRFs for further investigations.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 629
Ning Li ◽  
Weifang Zhang ◽  
Hai Xu ◽  
Yikun Cai ◽  
Xiaojun Yan

In this work, the corrosion behavior and mechanical properties of 30CrMnSiA high-strength steel under a harsh marine atmosphere environment were systematically studied using accelerated test technology, along with corrosion kinetic analysis, microstructure and phase composition analysis, electrochemical measurements, and mechanical property tests. The influence of corrosion time on corrosion kinetics was characterized by the weight loss method. The corrosion layer and its product evolution were analyzed by SEM, EDS, XRD, and XPS. The corrosion behavior of steel was studied by a potentiodynamic polarization curve and EIS. Finally, the influence of corrosion on mechanical properties was studied by tensile and fatigue tests. The results show that 30CrMnSiA high strength steel has good corrosion resistance in a harsh marine atmosphere environment. Its corrosion behavior is cyclical: the outer rust layer exfoliated, the inner rust layer became the outer rust layer, and the matrix became inner rust due to the attack by the corrosive medium. The rust layer had a great protective effect on the matrix. The mechanical properties of 30CrMnSiA high-strength steel were reduced under the corrosive environment, and corrosion had a significant effect on its fatigue resistance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Xiaoying Zhang ◽  
Wenxiu Wang ◽  
Xiaolei Yu ◽  
Yuxia Liu ◽  
Wenhui Li ◽  

AbstractFaeces Vespertilionis is a commonly used fecal traditional Chinese medicine. Traditionally, it is identified relying only on morphological characters. This poses a serious challenge to the composition analysis accuracy of this complex biological mixture. Thus, for quality control purposes, an accurate and effective method should be provided for taxonomic identification of Faeces Vespertilionis. In this study, 26 samples of Faeces Vespertilionis from ten provinces in China were tested using DNA metabarcoding. Seven operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were detected as belonging to bats. Among them, Hipposideros armiger (Hodgson, 1835) and Rhinolophus ferrumequinum (Schober and Grimmberger, 1997) were the main host sources of Faeces Vespertilionis samples, with average relative abundances of 59.3% and 24.1%, respectively. Biodiversity analysis showed that Diptera and Lepidoptera were the most frequently consumed insects. At the species level, 19 taxa were clearly identified. Overall, our study used DNA metabarcoding to analyze the biological composition of Faeces Vespertilionis, which provides a new idea for the quality control of this special traditional Chinese medicine.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Cécile Lambert ◽  
Gaëlle Bellemère ◽  
Gaëtan Boyer ◽  
Frank Ponelle ◽  
Thierry Bauer ◽  

Objective: Avocado/soybean unsaponifiables (ASUs) are commonly used to treat OA symptoms. However, there are many ASU mixtures on the market with differing compositions and pharmacological activities. This study aimed to compare the composition and pharmacological activity of seven commercially available ASU products on human osteoarthritis chondrocytes.Methods: The contents of the lipidic part of ASUs were characterized by gas chromatography analysis using a VARIAN 3400 chromatograph. The pharmacological activity of the ASU products was tested on human osteoarthritis chondrocytes cultured in alginate beads. Their effects were evaluated on aggrecan, interleukin (IL)-6 and -8, and matrix metalloproteases (MMP)-3 using immunoassays and on nitric oxide through measurement of nitrite via spectrometry.Results: PIASCLEDINE-ExpASU® showed a specific profile with the presence of chromatographic peaks corresponding to an alkyl furan fraction and alkyl triols. PIASCLEDINE-ExpASU®, Persemax, Insaponifiable 300, Arthrocen, and Arthocare contained quantifiable amounts of tocopherol, while tocopherol was undetectable in Avovida and Saponic. Squalene was found only in PIASCLEDINE-ExpASU®. The abundance of sterols varied depending on the product. PIASCLEDINE-ExpASU® was the most active of the tested ASU products in inhibiting nitric oxide, IL-6, and IL-8 production by chondrocytes. With the exception of Saponic and Persemax, all the ASU mixtures either slightly or significantly increased aggrecan production. MMP-3 levels were significantly decreased by Insaponifiable 300 and PIASCLEDINE-ExpASU® and significantly increased by Saponic.Conclusion: The composition of PIASCLEDINE-ExpASU® is different to that of the other evaluated ASU mixtures. This specific composition explains its better pharmacological activity, including the higher inhibitory effect on pro-inflammatory and pro-catabolic factors. Our findings are helpful in providing a basis for understanding the symptomatic effect of PIASCLEDINE-ExpASU® in patients with osteoarthritis.

2022 ◽  
Vol 120 (2) ◽  
pp. 023701
Phuong H. L. Nguyen ◽  
Shimon Rubin ◽  
Pulak Sarangi ◽  
Piya Pal ◽  
Yeshaiahu Fainman

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