The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of virtual planning of computer-guided surgery based on the actual outcomes of clinical dental implant placement.
This retrospective study enrolled patients among whom implant treatment was planned using computer-guided surgery with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The patients who received implant according to the guide with the flapless and flapped approach were classified as group 1 and 2, respectively, and the others who could not be placed according to the guide were allocated to the drop-out group. The accuracy of implant placement was evaluated with the superimposition of CBCT.
We analyzed differences in the deviated distance of the entrance point and deviated angulation of the insertion of implant fixtures. With regard to the surgical approach, group 2 exhibited greater accuracy compared to group 1 in deviation distance (2.22 ± 0.88 and 3.18 ± 0.89 mm, respectively, P < 0.001) and angulation (4.27 ± 2.30 and 6.82 ± 2.71°, respectively, P = 0.001). The limitations of guided surgery were discussed while considering the findings from the drop-out group.
Computer-guided surgery demonstrates greater accuracy in implant placement with the flapless approach. Further research should be conducted to enhance the availability of guides for cases with unfavorable residual bone conditions.
The aim of this study is to investigate vascular and neurosensory complications in edentulous patients following the installation of mandibular midline single implants in relation to lingual canals.
Materials and methods
After performing a cone beam computed tomography scan for the 50 recruited patients, the relationship between the potential implant site and the lingual canals was assessed, and all vascular and neurosensory complications were recorded.
Six patients (12%) reported profuse bleeding during implant placement, and 13 (26%) reported transient neurosensory changes, which were resolved after 3 months. According to the virtual implant planning, 44 patients (88%) would have their implants touching the lingual canals, six of them reported vascular changes (14%), and 12 out of 44 patients reported neurosensory changes (27%). For the six patients who would have their implants not touching the lingual canals, one patient reported transient neurosensory changes.
The mandibular lingual canals are constant anatomic landmarks. Injury to the supra-spinosum lingual canals may occur during midline implant placement, depending on the implant length and the bone height.
Despite that injury to the supra-spinosum lingual canals during implant insertion does not result in permanent vascular or neurosensory complications, caution is required to avoid the perforation of the lingual cortices.
Background. Atrophy of the posterior maxilla as a consequence of tooth loss and sinus pneumatization is a frequent condition encountered in the clinical practice. Prosthetic rehabilitation with implants in these patients often requires some kind of bone regeneration procedure to increase the bone volume. Aim. The aim of the present retrospective study is to analyze the survival and success rates of a series of implants placed in the atrophic posterior maxilla with a transcrestal osteotome procedure, without placing a bone grafting material. Materials and Methods. From 2006 to 2014, 36 dental implants (Neoss Ltd., Harrogate, UK) were inserted in 36 patients with at least 4 mm of bone below the maxillary sinus using transcrestal osteotome sinus floor elevation and placement of collagen sponge below the sinus membrane. ISQ measurements were made after implant placement and at abutment surgery after 4 to 6 months. The vertical bone height (VBH) was evaluated in intraoral radiographs taken prior to surgery and in radiographs from annual check-up appointments 5 to 13 years after implant placement. In addition, marginal bone loss (MBL) was evaluated. Results. One implant was lost after four years of prosthetic loading. The remaining 35 implants showed no complications and were loaded with single crowns after 4–6 months of healing. All 35 implants showed clinical success after 8.5 ± 2.8 years of prosthetic loading (from 5 to 13 years). The vertical bone height was 5.9 ± 1.4 mm at surgery, 9.7 ± 1.1 mm at second surgery after 4–6 months, and 8.3 ± 1.8 at the follow-up at 8.5 ± 2.8 years (from 5 to 13 years). The implant stability registered was 73.2 ± 6.2 ISQ at the surgery and 75.8 ± 3.9 at the second surgery after 4–6 months. Conclusions. The present long-term follow-up study showed that the crestal approach for sinus floor bone augmentation without additional bone grafting results in predicable bone formation and high implant survival. The osteotome technique is a valid alternative to the more invasive lateral window technique in single cases with a minimum of 4 mm of VBH below the maxillary sinus.