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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Jeong-Kui Ku ◽  
Junggon Lee ◽  
Hyo-Jung Lee ◽  
Pil-Young Yun ◽  
Young-Kyun Kim

Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of virtual planning of computer-guided surgery based on the actual outcomes of clinical dental implant placement. Methods This retrospective study enrolled patients among whom implant treatment was planned using computer-guided surgery with cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The patients who received implant according to the guide with the flapless and flapped approach were classified as group 1 and 2, respectively, and the others who could not be placed according to the guide were allocated to the drop-out group. The accuracy of implant placement was evaluated with the superimposition of CBCT. Results We analyzed differences in the deviated distance of the entrance point and deviated angulation of the insertion of implant fixtures. With regard to the surgical approach, group 2 exhibited greater accuracy compared to group 1 in deviation distance (2.22 ± 0.88 and 3.18 ± 0.89 mm, respectively, P < 0.001) and angulation (4.27 ± 2.30 and 6.82 ± 2.71°, respectively, P = 0.001). The limitations of guided surgery were discussed while considering the findings from the drop-out group. Conclusions Computer-guided surgery demonstrates greater accuracy in implant placement with the flapless approach. Further research should be conducted to enhance the availability of guides for cases with unfavorable residual bone conditions.

2022 ◽  
Vol 19 (1) ◽  
Joëlle L. Sobngwi-Tambekou ◽  
Marthe Tsague-Agnoux ◽  
Léopold K. Fezeu ◽  
Flavien Ndonko

Abstract Background Adolescent childbearing increases the risk of adverse health and social consequences including school dropout (SDO). However, it remains unclear why some teenage mothers drop out of school and others do not, especially in sub-Saharan Africa settings. We aimed to investigate the background and behavioral characteristics of single mothers, associated with school dropout in a sample of 18,791 Cameroonian girls, who had their first child during adolescence. Methods We used data from a national registry of single mothers, collected during the years 2005–2008 and 2010–2011. Both bivariate analysis and logistic binary regression models were used to explore the relationship between adolescence motherhood and SDO controlling for a range of socio-economic, family, sexual and health seeking behavior characteristics. Results Among the 18,791 single mothers, 41.6% had dropped out of school because of pregnancy. The multivariable regression model showed that SDO was more common in those who were evicted from their parental home (aOR: 1.85; 95% CI: 1.69–2.04), those who declared having other single mothers in their family (aOR: 1.16; 95% CI 1.08–1.25) and in mothers who had their first child before 15. Using modern contraceptive methods, having declared no sexual partner during the last year and having less than 2 children were associated with a reduced likelihood of school dropout. Conclusions Strong social support is essential to ensure school continuity in this vulnerable population. Dropping out of school may put the teenage mother more at risk of unsafe health behaviour and new pregnancies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 469-480
Giang-Nguyen T. ◽  
Byron Havard ◽  
Barbara Otto

<p>Students drop out of schools for many reasons, and it has negative effects on the individual and society. This paper reports a study using data published in 2015 from the Educational Longitudinal Study conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics to analyze the influence of parental involvement on low-achieving U.S. students’ graduation rates from high school. Findings indicate that both students and parents share the same perspective on the need for parental involvement in their academic progress. For low-achieving high school students, parental involvement in academic work is a positive factor influencing students’ graduation from high school.</p>

2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (4) ◽  
pp. 118-120
Manju George Pynadath

Current Covid -19 pandemic has disrupted life in every corner of the world and will likely affect those children with preexisting disabilities. About 40% of differently-abled students are planning to drop out of schools because of difficulties they are facing in online education. The social distancing measures implemented by many countries have caused social isolation among children and had resulted in increased anxiety; stress and relapse of preexisting issues. This study aimed a) To Review the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on differently-abled children and their parents b) Discuss alternative measures for delivering health services for differently-abled children A literature review through online sources of the database. Studies published from January 2020 up to October 2021 where included The review revealed that lack of socialization due to social distancing creates anxiety, stress, and depression among children and their parents. As schools have been suspended children with disabilities were not able to practice their learned skills which they attained through special education. Tele-medicine and Tele-rehabilitation activities may help to lower the prevalence of mental health issues among children and their parents Everyday life of individuals across the globe has been severely affected due to the covid 19 pandemic. Amidst this, it becomes important to keep children with physical and mental disabilities not only physically safe but also looks after their psychological and emotional well-being.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (4) ◽  
pp. 156-162
Mausumi Basu ◽  
Ripan Saha ◽  
Subhra Samujjwal Basu ◽  
Vineeta Shukla ◽  
Ankita Mishra ◽  

The Government of India launched “COVID-19 vaccination drive” on 16th January, 2021 and health care workers were the first to be prioritised for vaccination. However, the uncertainty regarding safety and efficacy of the vaccine was the major concern amongst them. These led to vaccine hesitancy and ultimately drop out.To estimate the proportion of drop out of COVID-19 vaccination among vaccine-hesitant health care workers (HCWs) of a tertiary care hospital and to find out their perception and other background characteristics responsible for drop out. A facility based descriptive type of observational study, cross-sectional in design was carried out among 329 HCWs of a tertiary care hospital in Kolkata from 16th March- 12thApril, 2021using a pre-designed, pre-tested, structured questionnaire. The study population selected by simple random sampling technique. Data was analysed using Microsoft Excel 2010 and SPSS v25.0 in the form of descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression. About 44.1% of the study population didn’t take the COVID-19 vaccine. Socio-demographic factors like age, gender, religion, education, occupation,perception regarding necessity of vaccination, vaccine efficacy, dose and contraindication, safety in humans and role in future infections were significantly associated with drop out. There was a high proportion of vaccine drop out among health care workers. Different modifiable perceptions with socio-demographic factors had played important roles in COVID-19 vaccination drop out. As the global threat of COVID-19 continues, greater efforts through campaigns that target HCWs are needed to improve the intention of professionals’ vaccine acceptance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 ◽  
Murray Drummond ◽  
Claire Drummond ◽  
Sam Elliott ◽  
Ivanka Prichard ◽  
Jamie-Lee Pennesi ◽  

Girls' and young women's engagement and disengagement in physical activity has been well documented in Western culture. Sport plays a pivotal role in the development of behaviours that promote physical activity, particularly through commitment to team and individual goal attainment, socialisation, and feelings of belonging and self-identity. Community sport in Australia is the dominant pathway into state, national, and elite international competition. The importance of community sport in the lives of girls and young women cannot be overstated, irrespective of individual long-term sporting goals. Indeed, the dropout rate of girls in sports, like many other western cultures is significant and is certainly disproportionate to the numbers of boys who drop out. The present study aims to examine the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and environmental influences on community sporting pathways for girls and young women. Using a mixed-methods design, we include survey data from 2,189 high-school students (aged 12–18 years) and focus group and individual interview data from a subset of 37 high-school students, parents, and teachers, across metropolitan Adelaide, South Australia. The study included an examination of sporting practises and insights of male sport participants from the same age groups to juxtapose the findings and provide a more comprehensive understanding of girls' and young women's community sporting involvement. Parents and teachers were also included within the participant cohort to provide a comprehensive perspective. The results highlight the challenges that girls face with respect to engagement and disengagement in sport and particular points throughout their adolescent years. Recommendations are provided to help mitigate potential attrition of girls in sport in the future.

Demography ◽  
2022 ◽  
Donna K. Ginther ◽  
Astrid L. Grasdal ◽  
Robert A. Pollak

Abstract Fathers' multiple-partner fertility (MPF) is associated with substantially worse educational outcomes for children. We focus on children in fathers' second families that are nuclear: households consisting of a man, a woman, their joint children, and no other children. We analyze outcomes for almost 75,000 Norwegian children, all of whom lived in nuclear families until at least age 18. Children with MPF fathers are more likely than other children from nuclear families to drop out of secondary school (24% vs. 17%) and less likely to obtain a bachelor's degree (44% vs. 51%). These gaps remain substantial—at 4 and 5 percentage points, respectively—after we control for child and parental characteristics, such as income, wealth, education, and age. Resource competition with the children in the father's first family does not explain the differences in educational outcomes. We find that the association between a father's previous childless marriage and his children's educational outcomes is similar to that between a father's MPF and his children's educational outcomes. Birth order does not explain these results. This similarity suggests that selection is the primary explanation for the association between fathers' MPF and children's educational outcomes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Indiana Cooper ◽  
Peter Brukner ◽  
Brooke L. Devlin ◽  
Anjana J. Reddy ◽  
Melanie Fulton ◽  

Abstract Background Knee osteoarthritis has an inflammatory component that is linked to pain and joint pathology, yet common non-surgical and non-pharmacological interventions (e.g., exercise, calorie restricting diets) do not typically target inflammation. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility of a telehealth delivered anti-inflammatory diet intervention for knee osteoarthritis. Methods This 9-week single-arm feasibility study recruited participants aged 40–85 years with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis (inclusion criteria: average pain ≥4/10 or maximal pain ≥5/10 during past week). All participants received a telehealth-delivered anti-inflammatory dietary education intervention involving 1:1 consultations at baseline, 3- and 6-week follow-up. The diet emphasised nutrient-dense wholefoods and minimally processed anti-inflammatory foods and discouraged processed foods considered to be pro-inflammatory. The primary outcome of feasibility was assessed via: i) eligibility, recruitment and retention rates; ii) self-reported dietary adherence; iii) adverse events; and iv) treatment satisfaction. Post-intervention interviews evaluated the acceptability of the dietary intervention delivered via telehealth. Secondary outcomes included changes in self-reported body mass, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), health-related quality of life (EuroQoL-5D), analgesic use and global rating of change. Worthwhile effects were determined by the minimal detectable change (MDC) for all five KOOS-subscales (pain, symptoms, activities of daily living, sport/recreation, quality of life) being contained within the 95% confidence interval. Results Forty-eight of seventy-three (66%) individuals screened were eligible and 28 enrolled over 2 months (82% female, mean age 66 ± 8 years, body mass index 30.7 ± 4.8 kg.m−2). Six participants withdrew prior to final follow-up (21% drop-out). Of those with final follow-up data, attendance at scheduled telehealth consultations was 99%. Self-reported adherence to diet during the 9-week intervention period: everyday = 27%, most of time = 68% and some of time = 5%. Two minor adverse events were reported. Change scores contained the MDC within the 95% confidence interval for all five KOOS subscales. Suggestions to improve study design and limit drop-out included an initial face-to-face consultation and more comprehensive habitual dietary intake data collection. Conclusion This study supports the feasibility of a full-scale randomised controlled trial to determine the efficacy of a primarily telehealth-delivered anti-inflammatory dietary education intervention in adults with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Trial registration ACTRN12620000229976 prospectively on 25/2/2020.

2022 ◽  
pp. bjophthalmol-2021-320621
Eleonora Micheletti ◽  
Sasan Moghimi ◽  
Nevin El-Nimri ◽  
Takashi Nishida ◽  
Min Hee Suh ◽  

Background/aimsTo investigate the rate of ganglion cell complex (GCC) thinning in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients with and without deep-layer microvasculature drop-out (MvD).MethodsPOAG patients who had at least 1.5 years of follow-up and a minimum of three visits were included from the Diagnostic Innovations in Glaucoma Study. MvD was detected at baseline by optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Area and angular circumference of MvD were evaluated on en face choroidal vessel density images and horizontal B-scans. Rates of global and hemisphere GCC thinning were compared in MvD and non-MvD eyes using linear mixed-effects models.ResultsThirty-six eyes with MvD and 37 eyes without MvD of 63 patients were followed for a mean of 3.3 years. In 30 out of 36 eyes, MvD was localised in the inferotemporal region. While mean baseline visual field mean deviation was similar between the two groups (p=0.128), global GCC thinning was significantly faster in eyes with MvD than in those without MvD (mean differences: −0.50 (95% CI −0.83 to –0.17) µm/year; p=0.003)). Presence of MvD, area and angular circumference of MvD were independently associated with a faster rate of thinning (p=0.002, p=0.031 and p=0.013, respectively).ConclusionIn POAG eyes, GCC thinning is faster in eyes with MvD. Detection of MvD in OCT-A images can assist clinicians to identify patients who are at higher risk for central macula thinning and glaucomatous progression and may require more intensive management.

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