Cohort Study
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2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (40) ◽  
pp. 6951-6966
Hend Ibrahim Shousha ◽  
Shimaa Afify ◽  
Rabab Maher ◽  
Noha Asem ◽  
Eman Fouad ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Yan Liu ◽  
Shaohua Wang ◽  
Chuang Xue ◽  
Xiwen Hu ◽  
Guoling Zhou ◽  

Background. To date, around 4 per 100,000 adolescents committed suicide within the 29 OECD countries. The suicidal behavior is related to psychological factors, genetics, neurobiology, and other biomarkers. The aim of this study was to examine risk factors for the development of suicidal ideation in adolescent females with depression, focusing on the relationship between different testosterone levels and suicidal ideation, in order to help develop strategies to intervene in suicidal behavior in female adolescents with depression. Method. In this single-center prospective cohort study, we enrolled adolescent females with depression. We collected information on their baseline data, testosterone levels, symptom self-rating scale scores, suicidal ideation, non-suicidal self-injurious (NSSI) behaviours, and suicide attempts. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify risk factors for the development of suicidal ideation in adolescent females with depression. Results. A total of 113 hospitalized adolescent females were enrolled with a mean age of 13.5 (1.20). Among these patients, there were 86 (76.11%) subjects who suffered from suicidal ideation, 59 (52.21%) had NSSI and 23 (20.35%) had suicide attempt behavior. In the final model, higher level of testosterone ( p = 0.04 ) and higher age ( p = 0.02 ) were associated with the higher odds of having suicidal ideation. Conclusion. In this exploratory cohort study, the emergence of suicidal ideation was common among adolescent females with depression. This study is consistent with the other studies. It shows that the age is a potential predictor for suicidal ideation in hospitalized adolescent females with depression.

2021 ◽  
Abdulrahman Alshaya ◽  
Hayaa Alyahya ◽  
Reema Alzoman ◽  
Rawa Faden ◽  
Omar Alshaya ◽  

Abstract Background: Patients admitted with neurocritical illness are presumed to be at high risk for venothromboembolism (VTE). The administration of chemical and/or mechanical VTE prophylaxis is a common practice in critically ill patients. Recent data did not show a significant difference in the incidence of VTE between chemical compared to chemical and mechanical VTE prophylaxis in critically ill patients with limited data in neurocritically ill population. The objective of this study is to investigate the incidence of VTE between chemical alone compared to chemical and mechanical VTE prophylaxis in neurocritically ill patients. This was a retrospective cohort study at a tertiary teaching hospital. Data were obtained from electronic medical records for all patients admitted with neurocritical illness from 1/1/2016 to 1/12/2020. Patients were excluded if they did not receive VTE prophylaxis during admission or were younger than 18 YO. Major outcomes were symptomatic VTE based on clinical and radiological findings, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS), and hospital LOS. Minor outcomes included severe or life-threatening bleeding based on GUSTO criteria, and mortality at 28-days. Results: Two hundred and twelve patients were included in this study. Patients did not have any significant differences in their baseline characteristics. The incidence of VTE was not different between chemical only compared to chemical and mechanical VTE prophylaxis groups (19/166 (11.3%) vs 7/46 (15.2%); P=0.49. No difference between groups in their ICU LOS 6 [3 – 16.2] vs 6.5 [3 – 19]; P=0.52, nor their mortality (18/166 (10.7%) vs 3/46 (6.5%); P=0.38, respectively. Less bleeding events were seen in the chemical prophylaxis group compared to the combined VTE prophylaxis group (19/166 (11.3%) vs 12/46 (26.1%); P= 0.013. Conclusion: Our findings observed no difference between the administration of chemical prophylaxis alone compared to combined VTE prophylaxis in neurocritically ill patients. More data are needed to confirm this finding with more robust methodology.

2021 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
Jung-Yong Han ◽  
Hyoungyoung Kim ◽  
Sun-Young Jung ◽  
Eun Jin Jang ◽  
Soo-Kyung Cho ◽  

Abstract Background This study aimed to evaluate the crude incidence rates and relative risk of malignancy in Korean patients with SLE. Methods We conducted a retrospective nationwide cohort study using databases from the National Health Insurance Service in Korea. All prevalent SLE patients aged over 19 were identified from January 2012 to December 2014 and observed until the diagnosis of malignancy, death, or end of the study, December 2015. The crude incidence rates (IRs) and standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) of overall and site-specific malignancies in SLE patients were estimated. Results We identified 17,854 SLE patients and during the observation period (60,511 person-years [PYs]), 768 solid malignancies (126.9/10,000 PYs) and 68 haematologic malignancies (11.2/10,000 PYs) occurred in SLE patients. In SLE patients, breast and reproductive system and thyroid cancers occurred predominantly, followed by liver and colon cancers. The SIRs of overall, solid, and haematologic malignancies of SLE patients compared to the general population were 1.8 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6–1.9), 1.7 (95% CI 1.5–1.8), and 5.9 (95% CI 4.8–7.3), respectively. In solid malignancies, head and neck (2.7, 95% CI 1.1–4.2), bladder (2.4, 95% CI 1.1–3.8), liver (1.9, 95% CI 1.4–2.3), pancreas (1.9, 95% CI 1.3–2.6), lung (1.8, 95% CI 1.2–2.4), colon (1.7, 95% CI 1.3–2.2), thyroid (1.6, 95% CI 1.3–1.8) and breast and reproductive system (1.5, 95% CI 1.2–1.7) cancers are at increased risk in SLE patients. Conclusion An increased risk of haematologic and solid malignancies was observed in Korean patients with SLE compared to the general population.

Heart ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. heartjnl-2021-319677
Elena Hadjicosta ◽  
Rodney Franklin ◽  
Anna Seale ◽  
Oliver Stumper ◽  
Victor Tsang ◽  

ObjectiveGiven the paucity of long-term outcome data for complex congenital heart disease (CHD), we aimed to describe the treatment pathways and survival for patients who started interventions for functionally univentricular heart (FUH) conditions, excluding hypoplastic left heart syndrome.MethodsWe performed a retrospective cohort study using all procedure records from the National Congenital Heart Diseases Audit for children born in 2000–2018. The primary outcome was mortality, ascertained from the Office for National Statistics in 2020.ResultsOf 53 615 patients, 1557 had FUH: 55.9% were boys and 67.4% were of White ethnic groups. The largest diagnostic categories were tricuspid atresia (28.9%), double inlet left ventricle (21.0%) and unbalanced atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) (15.2%). The ages at staged surgery were: initial palliation 11.5 (IQR 5.5–43.5) days, cavopulmonary shunt 9.2 (IQR 6.0–17.1) months and Fontan 56.2 (IQR 45.5–70.3) months. The median follow-up time was 10.8 (IQR 7.0–14.9) years and the 1, 5 and 10-year survival rates after initial palliation were 83.6% (95% CI 81.7% to 85.4%), 79.4% (95% CI 77.3% to 81.4%) and 77.2% (95% CI 75.0% to 79.2%), respectively. Higher hazards were present for unbalanced AVSD HR 2.75 (95% CI 1.82 to 4.17), atrial isomerism HR 1.75 (95% CI 1.14 to 2.70) and low weight HR 1.65 (95% CI 1.13 to 2.41), critical illness HR 2.30 (95% CI 1.67 to 3.18) or acquired comorbidities HR 2.71 (95% CI 1.82 to 4.04) at initial palliation.ConclusionAlthough treatment pathways for FUH are complex and variable, nearly 8 out of 10 children survived to 10 years. Longer-term analyses of outcome based on diagnosis (rather than procedure) can inform parents, patients and clinicians, driving practice improvements for complex CHD.

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