The work presented here demonstrates the utility of a two-step algorithm for environmental poliovirus surveillance based on: preselection of sewage samples tested for the presence of enteroviral genetic material-RT-PCR assay and detection of infectious viruses by cell culture technique (L20B for polioviruses and RD for polio and other non-polio enteroviruses). RD and L20B cell lines were tested to determine their sensitivity for isolation of viruses from environmental samples (sewage). Finally, we wanted to determine if sewage concentration affects the results obtained for RT-PCR and cell cultures.
Fluorescence-guided surgery (FGS) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) and other contrast agents has shown its efficacy in improving resection margins, local recurrence and survival rates in several medical disciplines. It is the objective of this study to analyze the engraftment rate of musculoskeletal tumor specimens on the chick chorio-allantoic membrane (CAM), the rate of tumor fluorescence (PDD), and the effects of photodynamic therapy (PDT) after exposure of tumors to 5-ALA in an in vivo environment.
A total of 486 CAMs were inoculated with macroscopic tumor grafts (n = 26; n = 478 eggs) and primary cell culture suspensions (n = 2; n = 8 eggs) from 26 patients on day 10 of egg development. On day 16, 2 mg/200 µl 5-ALA were topically applied per egg. After 4 h of incubation, Protoporphyrin IX was excited using blue light (420 ± 10 nm). Tumor fluorescence (PDD) was photo-documented. A subgroup of specimens was additionally exposed to red light (635 nm ± 10 nm; PDT). After the termination of the experiment, CAM-grown tumors were histopathologically analyzed.
Benign and borderline tumors (chondroblastoma, giant cell tumor of bone and atypical chondrogenic tumor) presented with high rates of detectable fluorescence. Comparable results were found for chondrosarcoma, osteosarcoma and Ewing’s sarcoma among bone and dedifferentiated liposarcoma, myxofibrosarcoma and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma among soft tissue sarcomas. Overall, tumor fluorescence was negative for 20.2%, single-positive (+) for 46.9% and double-positive (++) for 32.9% of macroscopic xenografts, and negative in 20% and (+) in 80% of primary cell culture tumors. Macroscopic tumor xenografts (n = 478) were identified as viable in 14.8%, partially viable in 2.9% and partially to completely regressive in 45.2%. All (n = 8) tumors grown from primary cell culture were viable. After PDT, tumor samples were found viable in 5.5%, partially viable in 5.5% and partially to completely regressive in 68%. Egg survival increased with decreasing PDT doses.
The CAM model proves to be a suitable in vivo model for the investigation of short-term observation questions in musculoskeletal tumors. The findings of this study warrant further investigation of PDT effects on musculoskeletal tumors and a possible incorporation of 5-ALA FGS in clinical Orthopedic Oncology care.
Autologous transplants are still the means of choice for bypass surgery. In addition to good tolerability, there is a reduced thrombogenicity and fewer neointima hyperplasia compared to artificial materials. However, since viable transplants are limited, attempts are being made to improve existing artificial vascular prosthesis material. Next to the reduction of thrombogenicity, a rapid endothelialization of the vascular graft should reduce intimal hyperplasia and thus prevent stenoses. The effect of newly developed silicon oxide coatings on the growth of endothelial cells was therefore the goal of this work in a cell culture study.
A woven, uncoated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) vessel prosthesis was used. The coating process was carried out in a low-pressure plasma reactor in a multi-step process. After preparation of the vacuum chamber hexamethyldisiloxane (HDMSO) with oxygen was evaporated using argon plasma. By this an approx. 1 nm thin adhesion promoter layer was separated from plasma and HMDSO. The silicone oxide barrier layer was applied to the PET vessel samples. The carbon content of the layer could be selectively altered by changing the HMDSO oxygen flow ratio, resulting in coatings of 100 nm, 500 nm, and 1,000 nm. In addition, two different oxygen-to-HMDSO ratios were used. To achieve a carbon coating as low as possible, the ratio was set to 200:1. A carbon-rich layer was obtained with the 1:1 setting. The various coatings were then examined for their surface texture by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) as well as by cell culture experiments for cell viability and growth using EA.hy 926 cells.
SEM showed no changes in the surface morphology; however a layer thickness of 1,000 nm showed peeled off coating areas. Alamar blue assays showed a significantly higher metabolic activity (p=0.026) for the coating 500 nm, ratio 200:1 compared to untreated control samples and a significantly lower metabolic activity (p=0.037) of the coating 500 nm, ratio 1:1 compared to the coating 500 nm, ratio 200:1. This underlines the apparent tendency of the 1:1 coating to inhibit the metabolic activity of the cells, while the 200:1 coating increases the activity. Fluorescence microscopy after calcein acetoxymethyl ester (AM) staining showed no significant difference between the different coatings and the uncoated PET material. However, a tendency of the increased surface growth on the coating 500 nm, ratio 200:1, is shown. The coatings with the ratio 1:1 tend to be less densely covered.
The results of this work indicate a great potential in the silicon coating of vascular prosthesis material. The plasma coating can be carried out easy and gently. Cell culture experiments demonstrated a tendency towards better growth of the cells on the 200:1 ratio coating and a poorer growth on the carbon-rich coating 1:1 compared to the uncoated material. The coating with silicon oxide with a thickness of 500 nm and an oxygen-HMDSO ratio of 200:1, a particularly low-carbon layer, appears to be a coating, which should therefore be further investigated for its effects on thrombogenicity and intimal hyperplasia.